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      Physical Activity and Exercise Recommendations for Stroke Survivors : A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association

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          Abstract

          This scientific statement provides an overview of the evidence on physical activity and exercise recommendations for stroke survivors. Evidence suggests that stroke survivors experience physical deconditioning and lead sedentary lifestyles. Therefore, this updated scientific statement serves as an overall guide for practitioners to gain a better understanding of the benefits of physical activity and recommendations for prescribing exercise for stroke survivors across all stages of recovery. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writers used systematic literature reviews, references to published clinical and epidemiology studies, morbidity and mortality reports, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence and indicate gaps in current knowledge. Physical inactivity after stroke is highly prevalent. The assessed body of evidence clearly supports the use of exercise training (both aerobic and strength training) for stroke survivors. Exercise training improves functional capacity, the ability to perform activities of daily living, and quality of life, and it reduces the risk for subsequent cardiovascular events. Physical activity goals and exercise prescription for stroke survivors need to be customized for the individual to maximize long-term adherence. The recommendation from this writing group is that physical activity and exercise prescription should be incorporated into the management of stroke survivors. The promotion of physical activity in stroke survivors should emphasize low- to moderate-intensity aerobic activity, muscle-strengthening activity, reduction of sedentary behavior, and risk management for secondary prevention of stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

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          Most cited references160

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          Sedentary behaviors and subsequent health outcomes in adults a systematic review of longitudinal studies, 1996-2011.

          To systematically review and provide an informative synthesis of findings from longitudinal studies published since 1996 reporting on relationships between self-reported sedentary behavior and device-based measures of sedentary time with health-related outcomes in adults. Studies published between 1996 and January 2011 were identified by examining existing literature reviews and by systematic searches in Web of Science, MEDLINE, PubMed, and PsycINFO. English-written articles were selected according to study design, targeted behavior, and health outcome. Forty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria; of these, 46 incorporated self-reported measures including total sitting time; TV viewing time only; TV viewing time and other screen-time behaviors; and TV viewing time plus other sedentary behaviors. Findings indicate a consistent relationship of self-reported sedentary behavior with mortality and with weight gain from childhood to the adult years. However, findings were mixed for associations with disease incidence, weight gain during adulthood, and cardiometabolic risk. Of the three studies that used device-based measures of sedentary time, one showed that markers of obesity predicted sedentary time, whereas inconclusive findings have been observed for markers of insulin resistance. There is a growing body of evidence that sedentary behavior may be a distinct risk factor, independent of physical activity, for multiple adverse health outcomes in adults. Prospective studies using device-based measures are required to provide a clearer understanding of the impact of sedentary time on health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the american heart association/american stroke association.

            The aim of this updated statement is to provide comprehensive and timely evidence-based recommendations on the prevention of ischemic stroke among survivors of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Evidence-based recommendations are included for the control of risk factors, interventional approaches for atherosclerotic disease, antithrombotic treatments for cardioembolism, and the use of antiplatelet agents for noncardioembolic stroke. Further recommendations are provided for the prevention of recurrent stroke in a variety of other specific circumstances, including arterial dissections; patent foramen ovale; hyperhomocysteinemia; hypercoagulable states; sickle cell disease; cerebral venous sinus thrombosis; stroke among women, particularly with regard to pregnancy and the use of postmenopausal hormones; the use of anticoagulation after cerebral hemorrhage; and special approaches to the implementation of guidelines and their use in high-risk populations.
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              Frequency of depression after stroke: a systematic review of observational studies.

              Although depression is an important sequelae of stroke, there is uncertainty regarding its frequency and outcome. We undertook a systematic review of all published nonexperimental studies (to June 2004) with prospective consecutive patient recruitment and quantification of depressive symptoms/illness after stroke. Data were available from 51 studies (reported in 96 publications) conducted between 1977 and 2002. Although frequencies varied considerably across studies, the pooled estimate was 33% (95% confidence interval, 29% to 36%) of all stroke survivors experiencing depression. Differences in case mix and method of mood assessment could explain some of the variation in estimates across studies. The data also suggest that depression resolves spontaneously within several months of onset in the majority of stroke survivors, with few receiving any specific antidepressant therapy or active management. Depression is common among stroke patients, with the risks of occurrence being similar for the early, medium, and late stages of stroke recovery. There is a pressing need for further research to improve clinical practice in this area of stroke care.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Stroke
                Stroke
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0039-2499
                1524-4628
                August 2014
                August 2014
                : 45
                : 8
                : 2532-2553
                Article
                10.1161/STR.0000000000000022
                24846875
                35851ea2-a955-4040-a64b-e97e5b27741a
                © 2014

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