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      Extending Helminth Control beyond STH and Schistosomiasis: The Case of Human Hymenolepiasis

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          Most cited references 18

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          Estimating the burden of disease from water, sanitation, and hygiene at a global level.

          We estimated the disease burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene at the global level taking into account various disease outcomes, principally diarrheal diseases. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) combines the burden from death and disability in a single index and permits the comparison of the burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene with the burden from other risk factors or diseases. We divided the world's population into typical exposure scenarios for 14 geographical regions. We then matched these scenarios with relative risk information obtained mainly from intervention studies. We estimated the disease burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene to be 4.0% of all deaths and 5.7% of the total disease burden (in DALYs) occurring worldwide, taking into account diarrheal diseases, schistosomiasis, trachoma, ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm disease. Because we based these estimates mainly on intervention studies, this burden is largely preventable. Other water- and sanitation-related diseases remain to be evaluated. This preliminary estimation of the global disease burden caused by water, sanitation, and hygiene provides a basic model that could be further refined for national or regional assessments. This significant and avoidable burden suggests that it should be a priority for public health policy.
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            Intestinal permeability, mucosal injury, and growth faltering in Gambian infants.

            There is controversy over whether children in developing countries can catch up on their growth rates after bouts of diarrhoea. A factor influencing catch-up growth is the extent and duration of mucosal injury. To explore the relation between intestinal disease and growth performance, a non-invasive test of intestinal integrity, the lactulose:mannitol permeability test, was done regularly on children aged 2-15 months, whose growth was monitored over a mean of 7.5 months. The study revealed persistent abnormalities in the small bowel mucosa of 2-15 month old Gambian infants and a negative correlation between these abnormalities and growth. Up to 43% of observed growth faltering can be explained on the basis of these long-term intestinal lesions.
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              The applications of model-based geostatistics in helminth epidemiology and control.

              Funding agencies are dedicating substantial resources to tackle helminth infections. Reliable maps of the distribution of helminth infection can assist these efforts by targeting control resources to areas of greatest need. The ability to define the distribution of infection at regional, national and subnational levels has been enhanced greatly by the increased availability of good quality survey data and the use of model-based geostatistics (MBG), enabling spatial prediction in unsampled locations. A major advantage of MBG risk mapping approaches is that they provide a flexible statistical platform for handling and representing different sources of uncertainty, providing plausible and robust information on the spatial distribution of infections to inform the design and implementation of control programmes. Focussing on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, with additional examples for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, we review the progress made to date with the application of MBG tools in large-scale, real-world control programmes and propose a general framework for their application to inform integrative spatial planning of helminth disease control programmes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of Queensland, Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, School of Population Health, Herston, Queensland, Australia
                [2 ]Centro de Investigação em Saúde em Angola, Caxito, Rua Direita do Caxito, Hospital Provincial do Bengo, Caxito, Angola
                [3 ]Disease Control Strategy Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
                [4 ]Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
                London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS Negl Trop Dis
                PLoS Negl Trop Dis
                plos
                plosntds
                PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1935-2727
                1935-2735
                October 2013
                24 October 2013
                : 7
                : 10
                3812097 PNTD-D-12-01209 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002321

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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                Pages: 4
                Funding
                The work presented in this manuscript and its publication was made possible by the generous support of the promoters of the CISA Project which include the Portuguese Institute for Development Assistance, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, the Bengo Provincial Government, and the Ministry of Health of Angola. RJSM is supported by a UQ Postdoctoral Fellowship and ACAC is supported by a NHMRC Career Development Fellowship. The funders had no role in data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The contents of the article are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funders.
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                Infectious disease & Microbiology

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