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      Adrenomedullin Inhibits Transmural Pressure Induced Mesangial Cell Proliferation through Activation of Protein Kinase A

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          Abstract

          Adrenomedullin (AM), a hypotensive peptide isolated from human pheochromocytoma, inhibits the proliferation of mesangial cells (MC) induced by mitogens such as platelet-derived growth factor. Quite recently, we have demonstrated that transmural pressure applied to cultured MC increased DNA synthesis and cell proliferation through protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase pathways. However, the modulatory effect of AM on pressure-induced cell proliferation is as yet unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of AM on transmural pressure-induced DNA synthesis in cultured rat MC. Pressure was applied to cells placed in a sealed chamber using compressed helium. Application of pressure resulted in an increase in [<sup>3</sup>H]thymidine incorporation (approximately 2.0-fold). AM clearly inhibited pressure-induced DNA synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. This inhibition was paralleled by an increase in cellular cAMP levels evoked by AM. Forskolin and dibutyryl cAMP mimicked the inhibitory effect of AM. The protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 significantly attenuated the effect of AM. Human AM(22–52)-NH<sub>2</sub>, a putative AM receptor antagonist, reversed the inhibitory effects of AM more potently than did human CGRP(8–37), a calcitonin gene related peptide receptor antagonist. Our results suggest that AM, by acting mainly on AM-sensitive receptors, inhibits pressure-induced DNA synthesis in cultured rat MC through activation of protein kinase A. AM may play a protective role against MC proliferation in certain pathological conditions.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Adrenomedullin stimulates two signal transduction pathways, cAMP accumulation and Ca2+ mobilization, in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

          The biological action of adrenomedullin, a novel hypotensive peptide, on bovine aortic endothelial cells, was examined. The specific binding of adrenomedullin to these cells was observed, and adrenomedullin was found to induce intracellular cAMP accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. EC50 for the cAMP accumulation was about 100 times lower than the apparent IC50 for the binding assay. Adrenomedullin also induced increase of intracellular free Ca2+ in endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. The Ca2+ response to adrenomedullin was biphasic with an initial transient increase due to the release from thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ storage and a prolonged increase by influx through the ion channel on the plasma membrane. This intracellular free Ca2+ increase resulted from phospholipase C activation and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, and seemed to cause nitric oxide synthase activation by monitoring intracellular cGMP accumulation. Both cAMP accumulation and Ca2+ increased responses to adrenomedullin were mediated by cholera toxin-sensitive G protein, but the two signal transduction pathways were independent. Thus, the results suggest that adrenomedullin elicits the hypotensive effect through at least two mechanisms, a direct action on vascular smooth muscle cells to increase intracellular cAMP and an action on endothelial cells to stimulate nitric oxide release, with both leading to vascular relaxation.
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            Adrenomedullin expression in human tumor cell lines. Its potential role as an autocrine growth factor.

            Although adrenomedullin (AM) previously has been identified in human tumors, its role has remained elusive. Analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed AM mRNA in 18 of 20 human normal tissues representing major organs, and 55 of 58 (95%) malignant cell lines. Western blot and high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed immunoreactive AM species of 18, 14, and 6 kDa that are consistent with the precursor, intermediate product, and active peptide, respectively. Immunohistochemistry and in situ RT-PCR performed on paraffin-embedded tumor cell lines of various tissue origins exhibited AM cytoplasmic staining. Neutralizing monoclonal antibody to AM inhibits tumor cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect that was reversed with the addition of exogenous AM. Responding tumor cells were shown to have approximately 50,000 AM receptors per cell by Scatchard analysis with 125I-AM and expressed AM receptor mRNA by RT-PCR. Our data showed 36 of 48 (75%) tumor cell lines expressed AM receptor mRNA by RT-PCR assessment, all of them also expressed AM. In the presence of AM, cAMP levels were shown to increase in tumor cells. Our collective data demonstrate that AM and AM receptor are expressed in numerous human cancer cell lines of diverse origin and constitute a potential autocrine growth mechanism that could drive neoplastic proliferation.
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              Specific receptors for adrenomedullin in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

              The effects of synthetic rat adrenomedullin (rAM), a novel vasorelaxant peptide originally isolated from human pheochromocytoma, on receptor binding and cAMP generation were studied in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). A binding study using [125I]rAM revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity (Kd 1.3 x 10(-8) M) binding sites for rAM in VSMC. The apparent Ki of rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (rCGRP) was 3 x 10(-7) M. Affinity labeling of VSMC membranes with [125I]rAM revealed two distinct labeled bands with apparent molecular weights of 120 and 70 kDa, both of which were abolished by excess unlabeled rAM or rCGRP, rAM stimulated cAMP formation with an approximate EC50 of 10(-8) M, the effect of which was additive with isoproterenol, but not with rCGRP. The rAM-induced cAMP response was unaffected by propranolol, indomethacin, or quinacrine, but inhibited by a CGRP receptor antagonist, human CGRP[8-37]. These data suggest that VSMC possesses specific AM receptors functionally coupled to adenylate cyclase with which CGRP interacts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                1999
                December 1999
                30 November 1999
                : 83
                : 4
                : 352-357
                Affiliations
                a2nd Department of Internal Medicine andDepartments of bPharmacology and cOrthopedics, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
                Article
                45427 Nephron 1999;83:352–357
                10.1159/000045427
                10575297
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 32, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45427
                Categories
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