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      Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

      1 , 2 , 1 , *

      Viruses

      MDPI

      Ebola, aerosol transmission, pigs, veterinary medicine

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          Abstract

          Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

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          Review of Aerosol Transmission of Influenza A Virus

          Concerns about the likely occurrence of an influenza pandemic in the near future are increasing. The highly pathogenic strains of influenza A (H5N1) virus circulating in Asia, Europe, and Africa have become the most feared candidates for giving rise to a pandemic strain. Several authors have stated that large-droplet transmission is the predominant mode by which influenza virus infection is acquired ( 1 – 3 ). As a consequence of this opinion, protection against infectious aerosols is often ignored for influenza, including in the context of influenza pandemic preparedness. For example, the Canadian Pandemic Influenza Plan and the US Department of Health and Human Services Pandemic Influenza Plan ( 4 , 5 ) recommend surgical masks, not N95 respirators, as part of personal protective equipment (PPE) for routine patient care. This position contradicts the knowledge on influenza virus transmission accumulated in the past several decades. Indeed, the relevant chapters of many reference books, written by recognized authorities, refer to aerosols as an important mode of transmission for influenza ( 6 – 9 ). In preparation for a possible pandemic caused by a highly lethal virus such as influenza A (H5N1), making the assumption that the role of aerosols in transmission of this virus will be similar to their role in the transmission of known human influenza viruses would seem rational. Because infection with influenza A (H5N1) virus is associated with high death rates and because healthcare workers cannot as yet be protected by vaccination, recommending an enhanced level of protection, including the use of N95 respirators as part of PPE, is important. Following are a brief review of the relevant published findings that support the importance of aerosol transmission of influenza and a brief discussion on the implications of these findings on pandemic preparedness. Influenza Virus Aerosols By definition, aerosols are suspensions in air (or in a gas) of solid or liquid particles, small enough that they remain airborne for prolonged periods because of their low settling velocity. For spherical particles of unit density, settling times (for a 3-m fall) for specific diameters are 10 s for 100 μm, 4 min for 20 μm, 17 min for 10 μm, and 62 min for 5 μm; particles with a diameter 6-μm diameter are trapped increasingly in the upper respiratory tract ( 12 ); no substantial deposition in the lower respiratory tract occurs at >20 μm ( 11 , 12 ). Many authors adopt a size cutoff of 10–20 μm will settle rapidly, will not be deposited in the lower respiratory tract, and are referred to as large droplets ( 10 – 12 ). Coughing or sneezing generates a substantial quantity of particles, a large number of which are 40%. The increased survival of influenza virus in aerosols at low relative humidity has been suggested as a factor that accounts for the seasonality of influenza ( 15 , 16 ). The sharply increased decay of infectivity at high humidity has also been observed for other enveloped viruses (e.g., measles virus); in contrast, exactly the opposite relationship has been shown for some nonenveloped viruses (e.g., poliovirus) ( 11 , 15 , 16 ). Experimental Influenza Infection Experimental infection studies permit the clear separation of the aerosol route of transmission from transmission by large droplets. Laboratory preparation of homogeneous small particle aerosols free of large droplets is readily achieved ( 13 , 18 ). Conversely, transmission by large droplets without accompanying aerosols can be achieved by intranasal drop inoculation ( 13 ). Influenza infection has been documented by aerosol exposure in the mouse model, the squirrel monkey model, and human volunteers ( 12 , 13 , 17 – 19 ). Observations made during experimental infections with human volunteers are particularly interesting and relevant. In studies conducted by Alford and colleagues ( 18 ), volunteers were exposed to carefully titrated aerosolized influenza virus suspensions by inhaling 10 L of aerosol through a face mask. The diameter of the aerosol particles was 1 μm–3 μm. Demonstration of infection in participants in the study was achieved by recovery of infectious viruses from throat swabs, taken daily, or by seroconversion, i.e., development of neutralizing antibodies. The use of carefully titrated viral stocks enabled the determination of the minimal infectious dose by aerosol inoculation. For volunteers who lacked detectable neutralizing antibodies at the onset, the 50% human infectious dose (HID50) was 0.6–3.0 TCID50, if one assumes a retention of 60% of the inhaled particles (18). In contrast, the HID50 measured when inoculation was performed by intranasal drops was 127–320 TCID50 ( 13 ). Additional data from experiments conducted with aerosolized influenza virus (average diameter 1.5 μm) showed that when a dose of 3 TCID50 was inhaled, ≈1 TCID50 only was deposited in the nose ( 12 ). Since the dose deposited in the nose is largely below the minimal dose required by intranasal inoculation, this would indicate that the preferred site of infection initiation during aerosol inoculation is the lower respiratory tract. Another relevant observation is that whereas the clinical symptoms initiated by aerosol inoculation covered the spectrum of symptoms seen in natural infections, the disease observed in study participants infected experimentally by intranasal drops was milder, with a longer incubation time and usually no involvement of the lower respiratory tract ( 13 , 20 ). For safety reasons, this finding led to the adoption of intranasal drop inoculation as the standard procedure in human experimental infections with influenza virus ( 13 ). Additional support for the view that the lower respiratory tract (which is most efficiently reached by the aerosol route) is the preferred site of infection is provided by studies on the use of zanamivir for prophylaxis. In experimental settings, intranasal zanamivir was protective against experimental inoculation with influenza virus in intranasal drops ( 21 ). However, in studies on prophylaxis of natural infection, intranasally applied zanamivir was not protective ( 22 ), whereas inhaled zanamivir was protective in one study ( 23 ) and a protective effect approached statistical significance in another study ( 22 ). These experiments and observations strongly support the view that many, possibly most, natural influenza infections occur by the aerosol route and that the lower respiratory tract may be the preferred site of initiation of the infection. Epidemiologic Observations In natural infections, the postulated modes of transmission have included aerosols, large droplets, and direct contact with secretions or fomites because the virus can remain infectious on nonporous dry surfaces for >(January 2006) recommends FFP2 respirators (equivalent to N95 respirators) (http://www.splf.org/s/IMG/pdf/plan-grip-janvier06.pdf). Given the scientific evidence that supports the occurrence of aerosol transmission of influenza, carefully reexamining current recommendations for PPE equipment would appear necessary.
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            Pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in cynomolgus macaques: evidence that dendritic cells are early and sustained targets of infection.

            Ebola virus (EBOV) infection causes a severe and fatal hemorrhagic disease that in many ways appears to be similar in humans and nonhuman primates; however, little is known about the development of EBOV hemorrhagic fever. In the present study, 21 cynomolgus monkeys were experimentally infected with EBOV and examined sequentially over a 6-day period to investigate the pathological events of EBOV infection that lead to death. Importantly, dendritic cells in lymphoid tissues were identified as early and sustained targets of EBOV, implicating their important role in the immunosuppression characteristic of EBOV infections. Bystander lymphocyte apoptosis, previously described in end-stage tissues, occurred early in the disease-course in intravascular and extravascular locations. Of note, apoptosis and loss of NK cells was a prominent finding, suggesting the importance of innate immunity in determining the fate of the host. Analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression showed temporal increases in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and Fas transcripts, revealing a possible mechanism for the observed bystander apoptosis, while up-regulation of NAIP and cIAP2 mRNA suggest that EBOV has evolved additional mechanisms to resist host defenses by inducing protective transcripts in cells that it infects. The sequence of pathogenetic events identified in this study should provide new targets for rational prophylactic and chemotherapeutic interventions.
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              Measurements of Airborne Influenza Virus in Aerosol Particles from Human Coughs

              Influenza is thought to be communicated from person to person by multiple pathways. However, the relative importance of different routes of influenza transmission is unclear. To better understand the potential for the airborne spread of influenza, we measured the amount and size of aerosol particles containing influenza virus that were produced by coughing. Subjects were recruited from patients presenting at a student health clinic with influenza-like symptoms. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from the volunteers and they were asked to cough three times into a spirometer. After each cough, the cough-generated aerosol was collected using a NIOSH two-stage bioaerosol cyclone sampler or an SKC BioSampler. The amount of influenza viral RNA contained in the samplers was analyzed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qPCR) targeting the matrix gene M1. For half of the subjects, viral plaque assays were performed on the nasopharyngeal swabs and cough aerosol samples to determine if viable virus was present. Fifty-eight subjects were tested, of whom 47 were positive for influenza virus by qPCR. Influenza viral RNA was detected in coughs from 38 of these subjects (81%). Thirty-five percent of the influenza RNA was contained in particles >4 µm in aerodynamic diameter, while 23% was in particles 1 to 4 µm and 42% in particles <1 µm. Viable influenza virus was detected in the cough aerosols from 2 of 21 subjects with influenza. These results show that coughing by influenza patients emits aerosol particles containing influenza virus and that much of the viral RNA is contained within particles in the respirable size range. The results support the idea that the airborne route may be a pathway for influenza transmission, especially in the immediate vicinity of an influenza patient. Further research is needed on the viability of airborne influenza viruses and the risk of transmission.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Viruses
                Viruses
                viruses
                Viruses
                MDPI
                1999-4915
                23 May 2016
                May 2016
                : 8
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Virology Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, Antwerp B-2000, Belgium; berhanumm2002@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 05, Hawassa, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: karien@ 123456itg.be ; Tel.: +32-3-247-6631
                Article
                viruses-08-00148
                10.3390/v8050148
                4885103
                27223296
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Microbiology & Virology

                ebola, aerosol transmission, pigs, veterinary medicine

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