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      Protective effect of capsaicin against methyl methanesulphonate induced toxicity in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster ( hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9

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          Abstract

          Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl- N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the main component in hot peppers, including red chili peppers, jalapenos, and habanero, belonging to the genus Capsicum. Capsaicin is a potent antioxidant that interferes with free radical activities. In the present study, the possible protective effect of capsaicin was studied against methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) induced toxicity in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster ( hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9 . The third instar was allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of capsaicin and MMS separately and in combination. The results suggested that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having MMS alone showed significant hsp70 expression as well as tissue DNA and oxidative damage, whereas the larvae feed on the diet having MMS and capsaicin showed a decrease in the toxic effects for 48-h of exposure. In conclusion, capsaicin showed a dose-dependent decrease in the toxic effects induced by MMS in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

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          Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) produces heat-labile DNA damage but no detectable in vivo DNA double-strand breaks

          Homologous recombination (HR) deficient cells are sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). HR is usually involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae implying that MMS somehow induces DSBs in vivo. Indeed there is evidence, based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), that MMS causes DNA fragmentation. However, the mechanism through which MMS induces DSBs has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that DNA fragmentation following MMS treatment, and detected by PFGE is not the consequence of production of cellular DSBs. Instead, DSBs seen following MMS treatment are produced during sample preparation where heat-labile methylated DNA is converted into DSBs. Furthermore, we show that the repair of MMS-induced heat-labile damage requires the base excision repair protein XRCC1, and is independent of HR in both S.cerevisiae and mammalian cells. We speculate that the reason for recombination-deficient cells being sensitive to MMS is due to the role of HR in repair of MMS-induced stalled replication forks, rather than for repair of cellular DSBs or heat-labile damage.
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            Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen-independent, p53 mutant prostate cancer cells.

            Capsaicin is the major pungent ingredient in red peppers. Here, we report that it has a profound antiproliferative effect on prostate cancer cells, inducing the apoptosis of both androgen receptor (AR)-positive (LNCaP) and -negative (PC-3, DU-145) prostate cancer cell lines associated with an increase of p53, p21, and Bax. Capsaicin down-regulated the expression of not only prostate-specific antigen (PSA) but also AR. Promoter assays showed that capsaicin inhibited the ability of dihydrotestosterone to activate the PSA promoter/enhancer even in the presence of exogenous AR in LNCaP cells, suggesting that capsaicin inhibited the transcription of PSA not only via down-regulation of expression of AR, but also by a direct inhibitory effect on PSA transcription. Capsaicin inhibited NF-kappa activation by preventing its nuclear migration. In further studies, capsaicin inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated degradation of IkappaBalpha in PC-3 cells, which was associated with the inhibition of proteasome activity. Taken together, capsaicin inhibits proteasome activity which suppressed the degradation of IkappaBalpha, preventing the activation of NF-kappaB. Capsaicin, when given orally, significantly slowed the growth of PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts as measured by size [75 +/- 35 versus 336 +/- 123 mm(3) (+/-SD); P = 0.017] and weight [203 +/- 41 versus 373 +/- 52 mg (+/-SD); P = 0.0006; capsaicin-treated versus vehicle-treated mice, respectively]. In summary, our data suggests that capsaicin, or a related analogue, may have a role in the management of prostate cancer.
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              Capsaicin (TRPV1 Agonist) therapy for pain relief: farewell or revival?

              In this review, we explain our current understanding of the molecular basis for pain relief by capsaicin and other transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1 (TRPV1) agonists. We summarize disease-related changes in TRPV1 expression and its implications for therapy and potential adverse effects. Last, we provide an overview of the current clinical uses of topical and injectable TRPV1 agonist preparations in both oncologic and nononcologic populations. Search of MEDLINE and other databases. The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is a polymodal nociceptor exhibiting a dynamic threshold of activation that could be lowered under inflammatory conditions. Consistent with this model, TRPV1 knock-out mice are devoid of post-inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia. TRPV1 desensitization of primary sensory neurons is a powerful approach to relieve symptoms of nociceptive behavior in animal models of chronic pain. However, over-the-counter capsaicin creams have shown moderate to poor analgesic efficacy. This is in part related to low dose, poor skin absorption, and compliance factors. Recently developed site-specific capsaicin therapy with high-dose patches and injectable preparations seem to be safe and reportedly provide long-lasting analgesia with rapid onset. We argue that TRPV1 agonists and antagonists are not mutually exclusive but rather complimentary pharmacologic approaches for pain relief and we predict a "revival" for capsaicin and other TRPV1 agonists in the clinical management of pain associated with inflammation, metabolic imbalances (eg, diabetes), infections (HIV), and cancer, despite the current focus of the pharmaceutical industry on TRPV1 antagonists.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CJNM
                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                Elsevier
                1875-5364
                20 April 2017
                : 15
                : 4
                : 271-280
                Affiliations
                1Drosophila Transgenic Laboratory, Section of Genetics, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh 202002, India
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: Yasir Hasan Siddique, Tel: 571-2700920-3430, E-mail: yasir_hasansiddique@ 123456rediffmail.com

                These authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

                Article
                S1875-5364(17)30044-4
                10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30044-4
                Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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