+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Second-Line Immunosuppressive Treatment of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Objective: Most cases of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in childhood are responsive to corticosteroids. However, there is a small group of children that demonstrate steroid resistance (steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome; SRNS), steroid dependence, or that frequently relapse (frequent-relapse steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome; FR-SSNS) which are more clinically difficult to treat. Therefore, second-line immunosuppressants, such as alkylating agents, calcineurin inhibitors, antimetabolites and, more recently, rituximab, have been used with varying success. The objective was to evaluate the response rates of various second-line therapies in the treatment of childhood nephrotic syndrome. Study Design: A retrospective chart review of pediatric subjects with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome was conducted at a single tertiary care center (2007-2012). Drug responses were classified as complete response, partial response, and no response. Results: Of the 188 charts reviewed, 121 children were classified as SSNS and 67 children as SRNS; 58% were classified as FR-SSNS. Sixty-five subjects were diagnosed with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis via biopsy. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 21 years. The combined rate of complete and partial response for mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was 65% (33/51) in SSNS and 67% (6/9) in SRNS. For tacrolimus, the response rate was 96% (22/23) for SSNS and 77% (17/22) for SRNS. Eighty-three percent (5/6) of SSNS subjects treated with rituximab went into complete remission; 60% relapsed after B-cell repletion. Eight refractory subjects were treated with combined MMF/tacrolimus/corticosteroid therapy with a 75% response rate. Conclusion: Our experience demonstrates that older medications can be replaced with newer ones such as MMF, tacrolimus, and rituximab with good outcomes and better side effect profiles. The treatment of refractory cases with combination therapy is promising.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 47

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Treatment of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome: new guidelines from KDIGO.

          The 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline on glomerulonephritis (GN) is intended to assist the practitioner caring for patients with GN. Two chapters of this guideline focus specifically on nephrotic syndrome in children. Guideline development followed a thorough evidence review, and management recommendations and suggestions were based on the best available evidence. Critical appraisal of the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations followed the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Chapters 3 and 4 of the guideline focus on the management of nephrotic syndrome in children aged 1-18 years. Guideline recommendations for children who have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SNSS), defined by their response to corticosteroid therapy with complete remission, are addressed here. Recommendations for those with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) (i.e., do not achieve complete remission) are discussed in the companion article. Limitations of the evidence, including the paucity of large-scale randomized controlled trials, are discussed. This article provides a short description of the KDIGO process, the guideline recommendations for treatment of SSNS in children and a brief review of relevant treatment trials related to each recommendation.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Nephrotic syndrome in children: prediction of histopathology from clinical and laboratory characteristics at time of diagnosis. A report of the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children.

              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Long-term outcome of idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome: a multicenter study.

              Long-term outcome of idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome was retrospectively studied in 78 children in eight centers for the past 20 years. Median age at onset was 4.4 years (1.1-15.0 years) and the gender ratio was 1.4. Median follow-up period was 7.7 years (1.0-19.7 years). The disease in 45 patients (58%) was initially not steroid-responsive and in 33 (42%) it was later non-responsive. The main therapeutic strategies included administration of ciclosporine (CsA) alone (n = 29; 37%) and CsA + mycophenolate mofetil (n = 18; 23%). Actuarial patient survival rate after 15 years was 97%. Renal survival rate after 5 years, 10 years and 15 years was 75%, 58% and 53%, respectively. An age at onset of nephrotic syndrome (NS) > 10 years was the only independent predictor of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a multivariate analysis using a Cox regression model (P < 0.001). Twenty patients (26%) received transplants; ten showed recurrence of the NS: seven within 2 days, one within 2 weeks, and two within 3-5 months. Seven patients lost their grafts, four from recurrence. Owing to better management, kidney survival in idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) has improved during the past 20 years. Further prospective controlled trials will delineate the potential benefit of new immunosuppressive treatment.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Extra
                S. Karger AG
                January – April 2014
                04 January 2014
                : 4
                : 1
                : 8-17
                Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, North Shore-LIJ Health System, New Hyde Park, N.Y., USA
                Author notes
                *Christine B. Sethna, MD, EdM, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, 269-01 76th Avenue, New Hyde Park, NY 11040 (USA), E-Mail csethna@nshs.edu
                357355 PMC3934602 Nephron Extra 2014;4:8-17
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, Pages: 10
                Original Paper


                Comment on this article