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      Biodegradable metals

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      Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports

      Elsevier BV

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          Synthetic biodegradable polymers as orthopedic devices.

          Polymer scientists, working closely with those in the device and medical fields, have made tremendous advances over the past 30 years in the use of synthetic materials in the body. In this article we will focus on properties of biodegradable polymers which make them ideally suited for orthopedic applications where a permanent implant is not desired. The materials with the greatest history of use are the poly(lactides) and poly(glycolides), and these will be covered in specific detail. The chemistry of the polymers, including synthesis and degradation, the tailoring of properties by proper synthetic controls such as copolymer composition, special requirements for processing and handling, and mechanisms of biodegradation will be covered. An overview of biocompatibility and approved devices of particular interest in orthopedics are also covered.
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            Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs): development, surface modification and applications in chemotherapy.

            At present, nanoparticles are used for various biomedical applications where they facilitate laboratory diagnostics and therapeutics. More specifically for drug delivery purposes, the use of nanoparticles is attracting increasing attention due to their unique capabilities and their negligible side effects not only in cancer therapy but also in the treatment of other ailments. Among all types of nanoparticles, biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with proper surface architecture and conjugated targeting ligands/proteins have attracted a great deal of attention for drug delivery applications. This review covers recent advances in the development of SPIONs together with their possibilities and limitations from fabrication to application in drug delivery. In addition, the state-of-the-art synthetic routes and surface modification of desired SPIONs for drug delivery purposes are described. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              In vivo corrosion of four magnesium alloys and the associated bone response.

              Degrading metal alloys are a new class of implant materials suitable for bone surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the degradation mechanism at the bone-implant interface of different degrading magnesium alloys in bone and to determine their effect on the surrounding bone. Sample rods of four different magnesium alloys and a degradable polymer as a control were implanted intramedullary into the femora of guinea pigs. After 6 and 18 weeks, uncalcified sections were generated for histomorphologic analysis. The bone-implant interface was characterized in uncalcified sections by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), element mapping and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that metallic implants made of magnesium alloys degrade in vivo depending on the composition of the alloying elements. While the corrosion layer of all magnesium alloys accumulated with biological calcium phosphates, the corrosion layer was in direct contact with the surrounding bone. The results further showed high mineral apposition rates and an increased bone mass around the magnesium rods, while no bone was induced in the surrounding soft tissue. From the results of this study, there is a strong rationale that in this research model, high magnesium ion concentration could lead to bone cell activation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports
                Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports
                Elsevier BV
                0927796X
                March 2014
                March 2014
                : 77
                :
                : 1-34
                Article
                10.1016/j.mser.2014.01.001
                © 2014

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