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      G Protein-Coupled Receptor 109A and Host Microbiota Modulate Intestinal Epithelial Integrity During Sepsis

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          The intestinal epithelial barrier is important to mucosal immunity, although how it is maintained after damage is unclear. Here, we show that G protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) supports barrier integrity and decreases mortality in a mouse cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis model. Data from 16S RNA sequencing showed that the intestinal microbiota of WT and Gpr109a −/− mice clustered differently and their compositions were disrupted after CLP surgery. GPR109A-deficient mice showed increased mortality, intestinal permeability, altered inflammation, and lower tight junction gene expression. After eliminating the intestinal flora with antibiotics, all experimental mice died within 48 h of CLP surgery. This demonstrates the critical role of the gut microbiota in CLP-induced sepsis. Importantly, mortality and other pathologies in the model were decreased after Gpr109a −/− mice received WT gut microbiota. These findings indicate that GPR109A regulates the gut microbiota, contributing to intestinal epithelial barrier integrity and decreased mortality in CLP-induced sepsis.

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          Most cited references 49

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          An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest.

          The worldwide obesity epidemic is stimulating efforts to identify host and environmental factors that affect energy balance. Comparisons of the distal gut microbiota of genetically obese mice and their lean littermates, as well as those of obese and lean human volunteers have revealed that obesity is associated with changes in the relative abundance of the two dominant bacterial divisions, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes. Here we demonstrate through metagenomic and biochemical analyses that these changes affect the metabolic potential of the mouse gut microbiota. Our results indicate that the obese microbiome has an increased capacity to harvest energy from the diet. Furthermore, this trait is transmissible: colonization of germ-free mice with an 'obese microbiota' results in a significantly greater increase in total body fat than colonization with a 'lean microbiota'. These results identify the gut microbiota as an additional contributing factor to the pathophysiology of obesity.
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            Obesity alters gut microbial ecology.

            We have analyzed 5,088 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the distal intestinal (cecal) microbiota of genetically obese ob/ob mice, lean ob/+ and wild-type siblings, and their ob/+ mothers, all fed the same polysaccharide-rich diet. Although the majority of mouse gut species are unique, the mouse and human microbiota(s) are similar at the division (superkingdom) level, with Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominating. Microbial-community composition is inherited from mothers. However, compared with lean mice and regardless of kinship, ob/ob animals have a 50% reduction in the abundance of Bacteroidetes and a proportional increase in Firmicutes. These changes, which are division-wide, indicate that, in this model, obesity affects the diversity of the gut microbiota and suggest that intentional manipulation of community structure may be useful for regulating energy balance in obese individuals. The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database [accession nos. DQ 014552--DQ 015671 (mothers) and AY 989911--AY 993908 (offspring)].
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              Diet-induced obesity is linked to marked but reversible alterations in the mouse distal gut microbiome.

              We have investigated the interrelationship between diet, gut microbial ecology, and energy balance using a mouse model of obesity produced by consumption of a prototypic Western diet. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) produced a bloom in a single uncultured clade within the Mollicutes class of the Firmicutes, which was diminished by subsequent dietary manipulations that limit weight gain. Microbiota transplantation from mice with DIO to lean germ-free recipients promoted greater fat deposition than transplants from lean donors. Metagenomic and biochemical analysis of the gut microbiome together with sequencing and metabolic reconstructions of a related human gut-associated Mollicute (Eubacterium dolichum) revealed features that may provide a competitive advantage to members of the bloom in the Western diet nutrient milieu, including import and processing of simple sugars. Our study illustrates how combining comparative metagenomics with gnotobiotic mouse models and specific dietary manipulations can disclose the niches of previously uncharacterized members of the gut microbiota.

                Author and article information

                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                13 September 2018
                : 9
                1College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University , Changchun, China
                2Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Shanxi University , Taiyuan, China
                3First Hospital of Jilin University , Changchun, China
                4State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Open Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology , Guangzhou, China
                5First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University , Guangzhou, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Mats Bemark, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

                Reviewed by: Angelica Thomaz Vieira, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais UFMG, Brazil; Thomas Griffith, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, United States

                *Correspondence: Liwei Xie xielw@

                This article was submitted to Mucosal Immunity, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work

                Copyright © 2018 Chen, Huang, Fu, Li, Ran, He, Jiang, Li, Liu, Xie, Liu and Wang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 49, Pages: 12, Words: 7223
                Original Research


                sepsis, gpr109a, gut microbiota, intestinal epithelial barrier, clp


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