β-Lactam antibiotics are widely used to treat urinary tract infections in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the presence and characteristics of extended spectrum β-lactamases in commonly isolated uropathogenic Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Nigeria.
Fifty non-duplicate GNB isolates consisting of Escherichia coli, 19; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 21; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were obtained from three tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. The antibiotic susceptibility testing of all isolates to a panel of antibiotics including minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and extended spectrum β-lactamases was determined. Polymerase chain reactions and sequencing were used to detect β-lactam genes.
Polymerase chain reactions and sequencing identified varying extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) encoding genes for 24 isolates (48.0%). Cefotaximase-Munich (CTX-M) 15 was the dominant gene with 20/24 of the isolates positive at 83.3%; multiple genes (2 to 6 ESBL genes) were found in 20 of the isolates. The isolates encoded other genes such as CTX-M-14, 33.3%; sulfhydryl variable (SHV) variants, 58.3%; oxacillinase (OXA) variants, 70.8%; OXA-10, 29.2%; and Vietnamese extended β-lactamase (VEB) 1, 25.0%. There was no difference between the MIC 50 and MIC 90 of all the isolates.
The high-level multidrug resistance of uropathogens to third generation cephalosporins including other antibiotics used in this study is strongly associated with carriage of ESBLs, predominantly CTX-M-15, as well as CTX-X-M-14, OXA-10, and VEB-1.