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      Relationship between N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and renal function: the effects on predicting early outcome after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

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          Abstract

          Background

          Plasma levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) provide useful prognostic predictors in patients after cardiac surgery. However, predictive accuracy of NT-proBNP levels has varied significantly according to renal dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess whether preoperative NT-proBNP levels could be used as predictors of early postoperative outcomes on the basis of renal function in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB).

          Methods

          In 219 patients undergoing elective OPCAB, NT-proBNP and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were assessed preoperatively. All patients were divided into 3 groups according to tertiles of eGFR: the first (eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m 2), the second (90 ml/min/1.73 m 2 > eGFR ≥ 72 ml/min/1.73 m 2) and the third tertile group (eGFR < 72 ml/min/1.73 m 2). End point was the composite of early postoperative complications defined as myocardial infarction, new onset atrial fibrillation, ventricular dysfunction, prolonged mechanical ventilator care (> 48 hr), prolonged ICU stay (≥ 3 days), and in hospital mortality.

          Results

          There was no difference in early postoperative complications among groups. A preoperative NT-proBNP level of 228 pg/ml and 302 pg/ml (sensitivity 70%, specificity 67%, P < 0.001 and sensitivity 73%, specificity 63%, P = 0.001, respectively) were optimal cut-off values predicting complicated early postoperative course in second and third tertile group, respectively.

          Conclusions

          Preoperative NT-proBNP levels seem to be predictive of early postoperative complications in patients with eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73 m 2 undergoing OPCAB.

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          Most cited references 23

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          European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE).

          To construct a scoring system for the prediction of early mortality in cardiac surgical patients in Europe on the basis of objective risk factors. The EuroSCORE database was divided into developmental and validation subsets. In the former, risk factors deemed to be objective, credible, obtainable and difficult to falsify were weighted on the basis of regression analysis. An additive score of predicted mortality was constructed. Its calibration and discrimination characteristics were assessed in the validation dataset. Thresholds were defined to distinguish low, moderate and high risk groups. The developmental dataset had 13,302 patients, calibration by Hosmer Lemeshow Chi square was (8) = 8.26 (P 200 micromol/l (2), active endocarditis (3) and critical preoperative state (3). Cardiac factors were unstable angina on intravenous nitrates (2), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (30-50%: 1, 60 mmHg (2). Operation-related factors were emergency (2), other than isolated coronary surgery (2), thoracic aorta surgery (3) and surgery for postinfarct septal rupture (4). The scoring system was then applied to three risk groups. The low risk group (EuroSCORE 1-2) had 4529 patients with 36 deaths (0.8%), 95% confidence limits for observed mortality (0.56-1.10) and for expected mortality (1.27-1.29). The medium risk group (EuroSCORE 3-5) had 5977 patients with 182 deaths (3%), observed mortality (2.62-3.51), predicted (2.90-2.94). The high risk group (EuroSCORE 6 plus) had 4293 patients with 480 deaths (11.2%) observed mortality (10.25-12.16), predicted (10.93-11.54). Overall, there were 698 deaths in 14,799 patients (4.7%), observed mortality (4.37-5.06), predicted (4.72-4.95). EuroSCORE is a simple, objective and up-to-date system for assessing heart surgery, soundly based on one of the largest, most complete and accurate databases in European cardiac surgical history. We recommend its widespread use.
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            Attenuation of compensation of endogenous cardiac natriuretic peptide system in chronic heart failure: prognostic role of plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in patients with chronic symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

            Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have high plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), mainly from the atrium, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), mainly from the ventricle. We examined the prognostic role of plasma BNP in chronic CHF patients in comparison with plasma ANP and other variables previously known to be associated with high mortality. We also evaluated the relationship between mortality and plasma cGMP, a biological marker of ANP and BNP. The study subjects were 85 patients with chronic CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction <0.45) who were followed for 2 years. The plasma levels of ANP, BNP, cGMP, and norepinephrine increased with the severity of CHF. Among plasma levels of ANP, BNP, cGMP, and norepinephrine and clinical and hemodynamic parameters, only high levels of plasma BNP (P<.0001) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (P=.003) were significant independent predictors of the mortality in patients with CHF by Cox proportional hazard analysis. Although plasma levels of ANP and BNP were threefold or fivefold higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors, there was no difference in plasma cGMP level between nonsurvivors and survivors. These findings indicate that plasma BNP is more useful than ANP for assessing the mortality in patients with chronic CHF and that the plasma levels of BNP provide prognostic information independent of other variables previously associated with a poor prognosis. Our findings also suggest that the compensatory activity of the cardiac natriuretic peptide system is attenuated as mortality increases in chronic CHF patients with high plasma levels of ANP and BNP.
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              Nomenclature and criteria for diagnosis of diseases of the heart and great vessels

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Korean J Anesthesiol
                KJAE
                Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
                The Korean Society of Anesthesiologists
                2005-6419
                2005-7563
                July 2011
                21 July 2011
                : 61
                : 1
                : 35-41
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gachon University of Medicine and Science Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [3 ]Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Yong Seon Choi, M.D., Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine and Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250, Seongsan-no, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752, Korea. Tel: 82-2-2228-8518, Fax: 82-2-364-2951, yschoi@ 123456yuhs.ac
                Article
                10.4097/kjae.2011.61.1.35
                3155135
                21860749
                Copyright © the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists, 2011

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Clinical Research Article

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                nt-probnp, renal function, opcab

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