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      Rhabdomyolysis: A review

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      Muscle & Nerve

      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Rhabdomyolysis, a syndrome of skeletal muscle breakdown with leakage of muscle contents, is frequently accompanied by myoglobinuria, and if sufficiently severe, acute renal failure with potentially life-threatening metabolic derangements may ensue. A diverse spectrum of inherited and acquired disorders affecting muscle membranes, membrane ion channels, and muscle energy supply causes rhabdomyolysis. Common final pathophysiological mechanisms among these causes of rhabdomyolysis include an uncontrolled rise in free intracellular calcium and activation of calcium-dependent proteases, which lead to destruction of myofibrils and lysosomal digestion of muscle fiber contents. Recent advances in molecular genetics and muscle enzyme histochemistry may enable a specific metabolic diagnosis in many patients with idiopathic recurrent rhabdomyolysis. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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          Most cited references 132

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          The spectrum of rhabdomyolysis.

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            Exercise intolerance due to mutations in the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA.

            The mitochondrial myopathies typically affect many organ systems and are associated with mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that are maternally inherited. However, there is also a sporadic form of mitochondrial myopathy in which exercise intolerance is the predominant symptom. We studied the biochemical and molecular characteristics of this sporadic myopathy. We sequenced the mtDNA cytochrome b gene in blood and muscle specimens from five patients with severe exercise intolerance, lactic acidosis in the resting state (in four patients), and biochemical evidence of complex III deficiency. We compared the clinical and molecular features of these patients with those previously described in four other patients with mutations in the cytochrome b gene. We found a total of three different nonsense mutations (G15084A, G15168A, and G15723A), one missense mutation (G14846A), and a 24-bp deletion (from nucleotide 15498 to 15521) in the cytochrome b gene in the five patients. Each of these mutations impairs the enzymatic function of the cytochrome b protein. In these patients and those previously described, the clinical manifestations included progressive exercise intolerance, proximal limb weakness, and in some cases, attacks of myoglobinuria. There was no maternal inheritance and there were no mutations in tissues other than muscle. The absence of these findings suggests that the disorder is due to somatic mutations in myogenic stem cells after germ-layer differentiation. All the point mutations involved the substitution of adenine for guanine, but all were in different locations. The sporadic form of mitochondrial myopathy is associated with somatic mutations in the cytochrome b gene of mtDNA. This myopathy is one cause of the common and often elusive syndrome of exercise intolerance.
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              Clear correlation of genotype with disease phenotype in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

              Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. VLCAD deficiency is clinically heterogenous, with three major phenotypes: a severe childhood form, with early onset, high mortality, and high incidence of cardiomyopathy; a milder childhood form, with later onset, usually with hypoketotic hypoglycemia as the main presenting feature, low mortality, and rare cardiomyopathy; and an adult form, with isolated skeletal muscle involvement, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria, usually triggered by exercise or fasting. To examine whether these different phenotypes are due to differences in the VLCAD genotype, we investigated 58 different mutations in 55 unrelated patients representing all known clinical phenotypes and correlated the mutation type with the clinical phenotype. Our results show a clear relationship between the nature of the mutation and the severity of disease. Patients with the severe childhood phenotype have mutations that result in no residual enzyme activity, whereas patients with the milder childhood and adult phenotypes have mutations that may result in residual enzyme activity. This clear genotype-phenotype relationship is in sharp contrast to what has been observed in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, in which no correlation between genotype and phenotype can be established.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Muscle & Nerve
                Muscle Nerve
                Wiley
                0148-639X
                1097-4598
                March 2002
                March 2002
                February 19 2002
                : 25
                : 3
                : 332-347
                Article
                10.1002/mus.10053
                11870710
                © 2002
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/mus.10053

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