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      Mechanism involved in insulin resistance via accumulation of β-amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles: link between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease

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          Abstract

          The pathophysiological link between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been suggested in several reports. Few findings suggest that T2DM has strong link in the development process of AD, and the complete mechanism is yet to be revealed. Formation of amyloid plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are two central hallmarks in the AD. APs are the dense composites of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) which accumulates around the nerve cells. Moreover, NFTs are the twisted fibers containing hyperphosphorylated tau proteins present in certain residues of Aβ that build up inside the brain cells. Certain factors contribute to the aetiogenesis of AD by regulating insulin signaling pathway in the brain and accelerating the formation of neurotoxic Aβ and NFTs via various mechanisms, including GSK3β, JNK, CamKII, CDK5, CK1, MARK4, PLK2, Syk, DYRK1A, PPP, and P70S6K. Progression to AD could be influenced by insulin signaling pathway that is affected due to T2DM. Interestingly, NFTs and APs lead to the impairment of several crucial cascades, such as synaptogenesis, neurotrophy, and apoptosis, which are regulated by insulin, cholesterol, and glucose metabolism. The investigation of the molecular cascades through insulin functions in brain contributes to probe and perceive progressions of diabetes to AD. This review elaborates the molecular insights that would help to further understand the potential mechanisms linking T2DM and AD.

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          Most cited references 185

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          Tau protein isoforms, phosphorylation and role in neurodegenerative disorders.

           A Delacourte,  L Buée,  P Hof (2000)
          Tau proteins belong to the family of microtubule-associated proteins. They are mainly expressed in neurons where they play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules to constitute the neuronal microtubules network. Microtubules are involved in maintaining the cell shape and serve as tracks for axonal transport. Tau proteins also establish some links between microtubules and other cytoskeletal elements or proteins. Tau proteins are translated from a single gene located on chromosome 17. Their expression is developmentally regulated by an alternative splicing mechanism and six different isoforms exist in the human adult brain. Tau proteins are the major constituents of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions described in Alzheimer's disease and numerous neurodegenerative disorders referred to as 'tauopathies'. Molecular analysis has revealed that an abnormal phosphorylation might be one of the important events in the process leading to their aggregation. Moreover, a specific set of pathological tau proteins exhibiting a typical biochemical pattern, and a different regional and laminar distribution could characterize each of these disorders. Finally, a direct correlation has been established between the progressive involvement of the neocortical areas and the increasing severity of dementia, suggesting that pathological tau proteins are reliable marker of the neurodegenerative process. The recent discovery of tau gene mutations in frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 has reinforced the predominant role attributed to tau proteins in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, and underlined the fact that distinct sets of tau isoforms expressed in different neuronal populations could lead to different pathologies.
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            Conversion of p35 to p25 deregulates Cdk5 activity and promotes neurodegeneration.

            Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is required for proper development of the mammalian central nervous system. To be activated, Cdk5 has to associate with its regulatory subunit, p35. We have found that p25, a truncated form of p35, accumulates in neurons in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This accumulation correlates with an increase in Cdk5 kinase activity. Unlike p35, p25 is not readily degraded, and binding of p25 to Cdk5 constitutively activates Cdk5, changes its cellular location and alters its substrate specificity. In vivo the p25/Cdk5 complex hyperphosphorylates tau, which reduces tau's ability to associate with microtubules. Moreover, expression of the p25/Cdk5 complex in cultured primary neurons induces cytoskeletal disruption, morphological degeneration and apoptosis. These findings indicate that cleavage of p35, followed by accumulation of p25, may be involved in the pathogenesis of cytoskeletal abnormalities and neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases.
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              Association of apolipoprotein E allele epsilon 4 with late-onset familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

              Apolipoprotein E, type epsilon 4 allele (APOE epsilon 4), is associated with late-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is high avidity and specific binding of amyloid beta-peptide with the protein ApoE. To test the hypothesis that late-onset familial AD may represent the clustering of sporadic AD in families large enough to be studied, we extended the analyses of APOE alleles to several series of sporadic AD patients. APOE epsilon 4 is significantly associated with a series of probable sporadic AD patients (0.36 +/- 0.042, AD, versus 0.16 +/- 0.027, controls [allele frequency estimate +/- standard error], p = 0.00031). Spouse controls did not differ from CEPH grandparent controls from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) or from literature controls. A large combined series of autopsy-documented sporadic AD patients also demonstrated highly significant association with the APOE epsilon 4 allele (0.40 +/- 0.026, p < or = 0.00001). These data support the involvement of ApoE epsilon 4 in the pathogenesis of late-onset familial and sporadic AD. ApoE isoforms may play an important role in the metabolism of beta-peptide, and APOE epsilon 4 may operate as a susceptibility gene (risk factor) for the clinical expression of AD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                22 November 2018
                : 12
                : 3999-4021
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, Malaysia, aditya.arya@ 123456taylors.edu.my
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia, aditya.arya@ 123456taylors.edu.my
                [4 ]Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals (IPharm), Bukit Gambir, Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, aditya.arya@ 123456taylors.edu.my
                [5 ]School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, Malaysia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Aditya Arya, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor’s University, Lakeside Campus, No.1, Jalan Taylor’s, Subang Jaya, Malaysia, Tel +60 3 5629 5653, Email aditya.arya@ 123456taylors.edu.my
                Article
                dddt-12-3999
                10.2147/DDDT.S173970
                6255119
                © 2018 Rad et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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