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      Continuous Negative Pressure Drainage with Intermittent Irrigation Leaded to a Risk Reduction of Perineal Surgical Site Infection Following Laparoscopic Extralevator Abdominoperineal Excision for Low Rectal Cancer

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          High rate of perineal surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common complication following abdominoperineal resection (APR), especially for extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of continuous negative pressure drainage combined with intermittent irrigation (CNPDCII) in the presacral space on the perineal SSI following laparoscopic ELAPE for low rectal cancer.

          Patients and Methods

          The clinical data of 99 patients with low rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic ELAPE surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 99 patients, 46 patients received CNPDCII and 53 patients received conventional drainage in the presacral space after ELAPE. Self-made irrigation drainage tube: took a silicone drainage tube, cut 3 side holes at every 2cm intervals at the front end, and fixed a flexible tube of an intravenous needle at the front end of the silicone drainage tube. The conventional drainage tube or self-made irrigation drainage tube was placed in the presacral space and poked out from the inside of the ischial tuberosity. The incidence of SSI and other perioperative indicators between the two groups was compared within 30 days after surgery.


          There was no statistical difference in clinicopathological features between the two groups of patients (p>0.05). A statistically lower rate of SSI was found in CNPDCII group (17.4%, 8/46) than the conventional drainage group (35.8%, 19/53). The drainage tube retention time (7.8±1.2 d VS 9.4±1.6 d) and the postoperative hospital stay (9.7±1.4 d VS 11.9±2.3 d) in CNPDCII group were significantly shortened than the conventional drainage group. There was no statistical difference in operating theatre time and intraoperative blood loss between the two groups. Multivariate analysis confirmed that CNPDCII was an independent protective factor for SSI after ELAPE.


          CNPDCII can effectively reduce the incidence of SSI following laparoscopic ELAPE, which is simple, safe and effective.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Adherence to the enhanced recovery after surgery protocol and outcomes after colorectal cancer surgery.

          To study the impact of different adherence levels to the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol and the effect of various ERAS elements on outcomes following major surgery. Single-center prospective cohort study before and after reinforcement of an ERAS protocol. Comparisons were made both between and across periods using multivariate logistic regression. All clinical data (114 variables) were prospectively recorded. Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Nine hundred fifty-three consecutive patients with colorectal cancer: 464 patients treated in 2002 to 2004 and 489 in 2005 to 2007. The association between improved adherence to the ERAS protocol and the incidence of postoperative symptoms, complications, and length of stay following major colorectal cancer surgery was analyzed. Following an overall increase in preoperative and perioperative adherence to the ERAS protocol from 43.3% in 2002 to 2004 to 70.6% in 2005 to 2007, both postoperative complications (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.98) and symptoms (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.70) declined significantly. Restriction of intravenous fluid and use of a preoperative carbohydrate drink were major independent predictors. Across periods, the proportion of adverse postoperative outcomes (30-day morbidity, symptoms, and readmissions) was significantly reduced with increasing adherence to the ERAS protocol (>70%, >80%, and >90%) compared with low ERAS adherence (<50%). Improved adherence to the standardized multimodal ERAS protocol is significantly associated with improved clinical outcomes following major colorectal cancer surgery, indicating a dose-response relationship.
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            Total Neoadjuvant Therapy in Rectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Treatment Outcomes

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              Deep pelvic anatomy revisited for a description of crucial steps in extralevator abdominoperineal excision for rectal cancer.

              Extralevator abdominoperineal excision results in superior oncologic outcome for advanced low rectal cancer. The exact definition of surgical resection planes is pivotal to achieving negative circumferential resection margins. This study aims to describe the surrounding anatomical structures that are at risk for inadvertent damage during extralevator abdominoperineal excision. Joint surgical and macroanatomical dissection was performed in a university laboratory of clinical anatomy. A stepwise dissection study was conducted according to the technique of extralevator abdominoperineal excision by abdominal and perineal approaches in 4 human cadaveric pelvises. Muscular, fascial, tendinous, and neural structures were carefully exposed and related to the corresponding surgical resection planes. In addition to the autonomic nerves to be identified and preserved during total mesorectal excision, further structures endangered during extralevator abdominoperineal excision can be clearly identified. Terminal pudendal nerve branches come close to the surgical resection plane at the outer surface of the puborectal sling. Likewise, the pelvic plexus and its neurovascular bundles embedded within the parietal pelvic fascia extend close to the apex of the prostate where the parietal pelvic fascia has to be divided. These neural structures converge in the region of the perineal body, an area that provides no "self-opening" planes for surgical dissection. Thus, the necessity to sharply detach the anorectal specimen anteriorly from the perineal body and the superficial transverse perineal muscle bears the risk of both inadvertent damage of the aforementioned anatomical structures and perforation of the specimen. The study focused primarily on the macroscopic topography relevant to the surgical procedure, so that previously published histologic examinations were not performed. The present anatomical dissection study highlights those anatomical landmarks that require clear identification for the successful achievement of both negative circumferential resection margins and preservation of urogenital functions during extralevator abdominoperineal excision.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                22 April 2021
                : 17
                : 357-364
                [1 ]Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Zibo Central Hospital, Shandong University , Zibo, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Chao Zhang Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Zibo Central Hospital, Shandong University , 54 West Gongqingtuan Road, Zibo, Shandong, 255000, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 05333570671Fax +86 05333570672 Email zhangchao20202021@163.com
                © 2021 Han et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 8, References: 38, Pages: 8
                Original Research


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