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      Fallen stock data: An essential source of information for quantitative knowledge of equine mortality in France

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          Summary

          Background

          Quantitative information about equine mortality is relatively scarce, yet it could be of great value for epidemiological purposes. In France, data from rendering plants are centralised in the Fallen Stock Data Interchange database ( FSDI), managed by the French Ministry of Agriculture, while individual equine data are centralised in the French equine census database, SIRE, managed by the French horse and riding institute ( IFCE).

          Objectives

          To evaluate whether the combined use of the FSDI and SIRE databases can provide representative and accurate quantitative information on mortality for the French equine population and to propose enhancements of these databases to improve the quality of the resulting demographic information.

          Study design

          Descriptive study.

          Methods

          Mortality ratios for the French equine population were calculated per year between 2011 and 2014 and temporal variations in equine mortality modelled during the same period. Survival analyses were performed on a sample of equines traceable in both the FSDI and SIRE databases.

          Results

          Estimates of the annual mortality ratios varied from 3.02 to 3.40% depending on the years. Survival rates of equines 2‐years‐old and over differed according to breed categories with the highest median age at death for the ponies. The weekly description of mortality highlighted marked seasonality of deaths whatever the category of equines. Modelling temporal variations in equine mortality also brought to light excess mortality.

          Main limitations

          Insufficient traceability of equines between the two databases.

          Conclusion

          The FSDI database provided an initial approach to equine death ratios on a national scale and an original description of temporal variations in mortality. Improvement in the traceability of equines between the FSDI and SIRE databases is needed to enable their combined use, providing a representative description of equine longevity and a more detailed description of temporal variations in mortality.

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          Most cited references28

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          Causes of and farm management factors associated with disease and death in foals.

          A prospective study was conducted to describe the causes of and farm management factors associated with disease and death in a population of foals in Texas. Data from 2,468 foals at 167 farms were provided by veterinarians for all 12 months during 1991. Among 2,468 foals, 116 deaths were reported (4.7%). Pneumonia was the most commonly reported cause of death, followed by septicemia. When considered as a group, musculoskeletal disorders (traumatic, infectious, or deforming problems) represented the most common cause of all reported deaths. Daily risk of death was greatest during the first 7 days of life, and decreased with age. Risk and frequency of causes of death varied by age. Crude incident morbidity during the year was 27.4% (677/2,468). Respiratory disease was the most common cause of incident disease in the study population, followed by diarrhea. Risk of disease was greatest among < or = 7 days old, and decreased with age. Crude rate of incident of diarrhea was significantly lower among farms where foals were born on pasture, compared with that at farms where foals were born in stalls. The practice of assessing passive immunity was significantly associated with decreased morbidity from septicemia and pneumonia.
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            Age patterns of disease and death in insured Swedish dogs, cats and horses.

            From 1995 to the present Agria Animal Insurance, Sweden (Agria Djurförsäkring, Stockholm, Sweden) has provided data on both health care and life insurance claims for descriptive and analytical research. From these data we have published extensively on insured dogs and horses and have recently submitted a study on cat mortality. Over the periods studied most extensively (1995-2002 for dogs, 1997-2004 for horses and 1999-2006 for cats), Agria has insured approximately 200,000 dogs, 100,000 horses and up to 200,000 cats per year. Estimates based on formal research or market surveys suggest that Agria insures approximately 40% of both the Swedish dog and horse populations and 50% of the purebred cat population. Where animal insurance is so widely embraced, the Agria-insured populations are likely to be representative of the national population. This paper focuses on age patterns of disease, differences between breeds and genders, body system and disease process and changes over time. An increase in survival over the years for dogs and cats is undoubtedly affected by owner, societal and veterinary factors relative to the availability of, and willingness and ability to access, and continue, veterinary care. In addition, marked differences in survival across breeds suggest that comparisons between people and companion animals in terms of health, disease and longevity must consider these complexities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Demographic and clinical characteristics of geriatric horses: 467 cases (1989-1999).

              To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of a population of geriatric horses. Retrospective study. 467 horses that were > or = 20 years of age. Medical records of 539 geriatric horses that were evaluated at a university large animal hospital between 1989 and 1999 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, reason for evaluation, specific diagnoses, surgical procedures, inpatient or outpatient care, duration of hospitalization, and outcome. 467 horses met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Horses that were > or = 20 years of age comprised 2.2 and 12.5% of horses evaluated during 1989 and 1999, respectively. Pony breeds were significantly overrepresented in the > or = 30-years-of-age group. Gastrointestinal tract, musculoskeletal, and respiratory tract problems were most frequently reported. Colic was the most common clinical sign, followed by lameness. Diagnoses made most frequently included pituitary dysfunction, strangulating lipoma of the small intestine, laminitis, heaves, large colon impaction, and gastric ulcers. Pituitary dysfunction was significantly more prevalent in horses that were > 30 years of age. Laminitis was significantly associated with the presence of pituitary dysfunction. It was difficult to assess association of age with illnesses identified in these horses. Demographic data and information regarding common diseases of horses that are > or = 20 years of age are limited but will become increasingly important as this geriatric population increases.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jackie.tapprest@anses.fr
                Journal
                Equine Vet J
                Equine Vet. J
                10.1001/(ISSN)2042-3306
                EVJ
                Equine Veterinary Journal
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                0425-1644
                2042-3306
                13 February 2017
                September 2017
                : 49
                : 5 ( doiID: 10.1111/evj.2017.49.issue-5 )
                : 596-602
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Laboratory for Equine Diseases French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Anses) Goustranville France
                [ 2 ] Epidemiology Unit French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Anses) Lyon, Cedex 07 France
                [ 3 ] French horse and riding institute (IFCE) Paris France
                [ 4 ] Scientific Directorate for Laboratories French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Anses) Lyon, Cedex 07 France
                Author notes
                [*] [* ]Correspondence email: jackie.tapprest@ 123456anses.fr
                Article
                EVJ12664
                10.1111/evj.12664
                5573972
                28079926
                35d3a0cc-4784-45ba-9adc-fd2f82115331
                © 2017 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Pages: 7, Words: 6204
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Conseil Regional de Basse‐Normandie
                Categories
                Article
                Analytical Clinical Studies
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                evj12664
                September 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.1.8 mode:remove_FC converted:29.08.2017

                horse,mortality,temporal variation,mortality ratio,epidemiological surveillance

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