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      Real-time monitoring of cisplatin cytotoxicity on three-dimensional spheroid tumor cells

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          Abstract

          Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultivation is a powerful technique for monitoring and understanding diverse cellular mechanisms in developmental cancer and neuronal biology, tissue engineering, and drug development. 3D systems could relate better to in vivo models than two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Several factors, such as cell type, survival rate, proliferation rate, and gene and protein expression patterns, determine whether a particular cell line can be adapted to a 3D system. The 3D system may overcome some of the limitations of 2D cultures in terms of cell–cell communication and cell networks, which are essential for understanding differentiation, structural organization, shape, and extended connections with other cells or organs. Here, the effect of the anticancer drug cisplatin, also known as cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) or CDDP, on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation was investigated using 3D spheroid-forming cells and real-time monitoring for 7 days. First, 12 cell lines were screened for their ability to form 3D spheroids: prostate (DU145), testis (F9), embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3), muscle (C2C12), embryonic kidney (293T), neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial cell (A549), cervical cancer (HeLa), HeLa contaminant (HEp2), pituitary epithelial-like cell (GH3), embryonic cell (PA317), and osteosarcoma (U-2OS) cells. Of these, eight cell lines were selected: NIH-3T3, C2C12, 293T, SH-SY5Y, A549, HeLa, PA317, and U-2OS; and five underwent real-time monitoring of CDDP cytotoxicity: HeLa, A549, 293T, SH-SY5Y, and U-2OS. ATP generation was blocked 1 day after addition of 50 μM CDDP, but cytotoxicity in HeLa, A549, SH-SY5Y, and U-2OS cells could be visualized only 4 days after treatment. In 293T cells, CDDP failed to kill entirely the culture and ATP generation was only partially blocked after 1 day. This suggests potential CDDP resistance of 293T cells or metabolic clearance of the drug. Real-time monitoring and ATP measurements directly confirmed the cytotoxicity of CDDP, indicating that CDDP may interfere with mitochondrial activity.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Cellular survival: a play in three Akts.

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            A three-dimensional microenvironment alters protein expression and chemosensitivity of epithelial ovarian cancer cells in vitro.

            For many cancers, there is a real need for more effective therapies. Although many drugs show promising results in vitro, most fail to translate into an in vivo model system, and only ∼5% show anti-tumor activity in clinical trials. It remains a significant challenge to accurately replicate in vitro the complex in vivo microenvironment in which cancers thrive, but this will be key to increasing the success of translating novel therapies into clinical practice. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models may better mimic primary tumors in vivo than traditional two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Therefore, we established and characterized 3D in vitro models of 31 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines, compared their biological and molecular features with 2D cultures and primary tumors, and tested their efficacy as models for evaluating chemoresponse. When cultured in 3D using polyhydroxoethylamethacrylate-coated plastics, EOC lines formed multicellular aggregates that could be classified as 'large dense', 'large loose', and 'small', based on size, light permeability, and proportion of cells incorporated into the complex structures. Features of histological differentiation characteristic of primary tumors that were not present in 2D cultures were restored in 3D. For many cell lines, the transition from a 2D to 3D microenvironment induced changes in the expression of several biomarkers relevant to disease. Generally, EOC cell lines proliferated more slowly and were more chemoresistant in 3D compared with 2D culture. In summary, 3D models of EOCs better reflect the histological, biological, and molecular features of primary tumors than the same cells cultured using traditional 2D techniques; 3D in vitro models also exhibit different sensitivities to chemotherapeutic agents compared with 2D models, which may have a significant impact on the success of drug testing pipelines for EOC. These findings could also impact in vitro modeling approaches and drug development strategies for other solid tumor types.
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              Tissue engineering: strategies, stem cells and scaffolds.

              Tissue engineering scaffolds are designed to influence the physical, chemical and biological environment surrounding a cell population. In this review we focus on our own work and introduce a range of strategies and materials used for tissue engineering, including the sources of cells suitable for tissue engineering: embryonic stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, we emphasize the developments in custom scaffold design and manufacture, highlighting laser sintering, supercritical carbon dioxide processing, growth factor incorporation and zoning, plasma modification of scaffold surfaces, and novel multi-use temperature-sensitive injectable materials.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                04 July 2016
                : 10
                : 2155-2165
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Research and Development, NanoEntek Inc., Seoul
                [2 ]Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Seong Soo A An, Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, 1342 Sungnam Daero, Sungnamsi 461-701, Korea, Tel +82 31 750 8755, Fax +82 31 750 8755, Email seongaan@ 123456gachon.ac.kr
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-10-2155
                10.2147/DDDT.S108004
                4938242
                27445462
                © 2016 Baek et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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