0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Conventional semen analysis and advanced sperm function tests in diagnosis and management of varicocele

      1 , 2 , 2

      Andrologia

      Wiley

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 187

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Glutathione transferases.

          This review describes the three mammalian glutathione transferase (GST) families, namely cytosolic, mitochondrial, and microsomal GST, the latter now designated MAPEG. Besides detoxifying electrophilic xenobiotics, such as chemical carcinogens, environmental pollutants, and antitumor agents, these transferases inactivate endogenous alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, quinones, epoxides, and hydroperoxides formed as secondary metabolites during oxidative stress. These enzymes are also intimately involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, prostaglandins, testosterone, and progesterone, as well as the degradation of tyrosine. Among their substrates, GSTs conjugate the signaling molecules 15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and 4-hydroxynonenal with glutathione, and consequently they antagonize expression of genes trans-activated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Through metabolism of 15d-PGJ2, GST may enhance gene expression driven by nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Cytosolic human GST exhibit genetic polymorphisms and this variation can increase susceptibility to carcinogenesis and inflammatory disease. Polymorphisms in human MAPEG are associated with alterations in lung function and increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Targeted disruption of murine genes has demonstrated that cytosolic GST isoenzymes are broadly cytoprotective, whereas MAPEG proteins have proinflammatory activities. Furthermore, knockout of mouse GSTA4 and GSTZ1 leads to overexpression of transferases in the Alpha, Mu, and Pi classes, an observation suggesting they are part of an adaptive mechanism that responds to endogenous chemical cues such as 4-hydroxynonenal and tyrosine degradation products. Consistent with this hypothesis, the promoters of cytosolic GST and MAPEG genes contain antioxidant response elements through which they are transcriptionally activated during exposure to Michael reaction acceptors and oxidative stress.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Clinical utility of sperm DNA fragmentation testing: practice recommendations based on clinical scenarios

            Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) has been generally acknowledged as a valuable tool for male fertility evaluation. While its detrimental implications on sperm function were extensively investigated, little is known about the actual indications for performing SDF analysis. This review delivers practice based recommendations on commonly encountered scenarios in the clinic. An illustrative description of the different SDF measurement techniques is presented. SDF testing is recommended in patients with clinical varicocele and borderline to normal semen parameters as it can better select varicocelectomy candidates. High SDF is also linked with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and can influence outcomes of different assisted reproductive techniques. Several studies have shown some benefit in using testicular sperm rather than ejaculated sperm in men with high SDF, oligozoospermia or recurrent in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. Infertile men with evidence of exposure to pollutants can benefit from sperm DNA testing as it can help reinforce the importance of lifestyle modification (e.g., cessation of cigarette smoking, antioxidant therapy), predict fertility and monitor the patient’s response to intervention.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Andrologia
                Andrologia
                Wiley
                0303-4569
                1439-0272
                March 2021
                May 05 2020
                March 2021
                : 53
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School New Brunswick NJ USA
                [2 ]Department of Urology Cleveland Clinic FoundationGlickman Urological & Kidney InstituteCleveland OH USA
                Article
                10.1111/and.13629
                35e34e98-1176-406b-a776-ff69a744aaad
                © 2021

                Comments

                Comment on this article