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      Functional Expression of Sodium-Dependent Vitamin C Transporter 2 in Human Endothelial Cells

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          Abstract

          Since oxidative stress plays an important role in dysregulation of the microcirculation as well as the pathogenesis of atherosclersosis, therapeutic intervention with antioxidants has been speculated to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Ascorbic acid (AA) has been reported to improve endothelial function; however, its intracellular metabolic pathway has not been fully determined. Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) types 1 and 2 were recently cloned. In the present study, we investigated whether SVCT-2 is functionally expressed in vascular endothelial cells and, if so, what factors modulate its activity. The uptake of AA into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was examined by incubation with radiolabeled AA (<sup>14</sup>C-AA). AA was transported into HUVECs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Replacement of sodium chloride with choline chloride in the medium suppressed the uptake of AA. RT-PCR revealed that HUVECs expressed SVCT-2 mRNA, but not SVCT-1. Transfection of HUVECs with the antisense oligonucleotide of SVCT-2 significantly suppressed the uptake of AA. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β inhibited the transport activity of AA. Thus, SVCT-2 is functionally expressed in human endothelial cells, and its activity is negatively regulated by inflammatory cytokines. Our findings might provide a new insight into understanding the treatment of cardiovascular diseases with AA.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Ascorbate is an outstanding antioxidant in human blood plasma.

          We have shown recently that the temporal order of antioxidant consumption in human blood plasma exposed to a constant flux of aqueous peroxyl radicals is ascorbate = protein thiols greater than bilirubin greater than urate greater than alpha-tocopherol and that detectable lipid peroxidation starts only after ascorbate has been consumed completely. In this paper, we show that it is indeed ascorbate that completely protects plasma lipids against detectable peroxidative damage induced by aqueous peroxyl radicals and that ascorbate is the only plasma antioxidant that can do so. Plasma devoid of ascorbate, but no other endogenous antioxidant, is extremely vulnerable to oxidant stress and susceptible to peroxidative damage to lipids. The plasma proteins' thiols, although they become oxidized immediately upon exposure to aqueous peroxyl radicals, are inefficient radical scavengers and appear to be consumed mainly by autoxidation. Our data demonstrate that ascorbate is the most effective aqueous-phase antioxidant in human blood plasma and suggest that in humans ascorbate is a physiological antioxidant of major importance for protection against diseases and degenerative processes caused by oxidant stress.
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            Glucose transporter isoforms GLUT1 and GLUT3 transport dehydroascorbic acid.

            Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) is rapidly taken up by cells and reduced to ascorbic acid (AA). Using the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system we examined transport of DHA and AA via glucose transporter isoforms GLUT1-5 and SGLT1. The apparent Km of DHA transport via GLUT1 and GLUT3 was 1.1 +/- 0.2 and 1.7 +/- 0.3 mM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed 100% reduction of DHA to AA within oocytes. GLUT4 transport of DHA was only 2-4-fold above control and transport kinetics could not be calculated. GLUT2, GLUT5, and SGLT1 did not transport DHA and none of the isoforms transported AA. Radiolabeled sugar transport confirmed transporter function and identity of all cDNA clones was confirmed by restriction fragment mapping. GLUT1 and GLUT3 cDNA were further verified by polymerase chain reaction. DHA transport activity in both GLUT1 and GLUT3 was inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose, D-glucose, and 3-O-methylglucose among other hexoses while fructose and L-glucose showed no inhibition. Inhibition by the endofacial inhibitor, cytochalasin B, was non-competitive and inhibition by the exofacial inhibitor, 4,6-O-ethylidene-alpha-glucose, was competitive. Expressed mutant constructs of GLUT1 and GLUT3 did not transport DHA. DHA and 2-deoxyglucose uptake by Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing either GLUT1 or GLUT3 was increased 2-8-fold over control cells. These studies suggest GLUT1 and GLUT3 isoforms are the specific glucose transporter isoforms which mediate DHA transport and subsequent accumulation of AA.
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              Mammalian facilitative hexose transporters mediate the transport of dehydroascorbic acid.

               J. Vera,  I Rivas,  D Golde (1993)
              Although vitamin C is critical to human physiology, it is not clear how it is taken up into cells. The kinetics of cell and tissue accumulation of ascorbic acid in vitro indicate that the process is mediated by specific transporters at the cell membrane. Some experimental observations have linked the transport of ascorbic acid with hexose transport systems in mammalian cells, although no clear information is available regarding the specific role(s) of these transporters, if any, in this process. Here we use the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system to show that the mammalian facilitative hexose transporters are efficient transporters of the oxidized form of vitamin C (dehydroascorbic acid). Two transport pathways, one with low affinity and one with high affinity for dehydroascorbic acid, were found in oocytes expressing the mammalian transporters, and these oocytes accumulated vitamin C against a concentration gradient when supplied with dehydroascorbic acid. We obtained similar results in experiments using normal human neutrophils. These observations indicate that mammalian facilitative hexose transporters are a physiologically significant pathway for the uptake and accumulation of vitamin C by cells, and suggest a mechanism for the accumulation of ascorbic acid against a concentration gradient.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2004
                August 2004
                30 September 2004
                : 41
                : 4
                : 345-351
                Affiliations
                Division of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
                Article
                80525 J Vasc Res 2004;41:345–351
                10.1159/000080525
                15340249
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 24, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Paper

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