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      Nanoparticle Vaccines Against Infectious Diseases

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          Abstract

          Due to emergence of new variants of pathogenic micro-organisms the treatment and immunization of infectious diseases have become a great challenge in the past few years. In the context of vaccine development remarkable efforts have been made to develop new vaccines and also to improve the efficacy of existing vaccines against specific diseases. To date, some vaccines are developed from protein subunits or killed pathogens, whilst several vaccines are based on live-attenuated organisms, which carry the risk of regaining their pathogenicity under certain immunocompromised conditions. To avoid this, the development of risk-free effective vaccines in conjunction with adequate delivery systems are considered as an imperative need to obtain desired humoral and cell-mediated immunity against infectious diseases. In the last several years, the use of nanoparticle-based vaccines has received a great attention to improve vaccine efficacy, immunization strategies, and targeted delivery to achieve desired immune responses at the cellular level. To improve vaccine efficacy, these nanocarriers should protect the antigens from premature proteolytic degradation, facilitate antigen uptake and processing by antigen presenting cells, control release, and should be safe for human use. Nanocarriers composed of lipids, proteins, metals or polymers have already been used to attain some of these attributes. In this context, several physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles play an important role in the determination of vaccine efficacy. This review article focuses on the applications of nanocarrier-based vaccine formulations and the strategies used for the functionalization of nanoparticles to accomplish efficient delivery of vaccines in order to induce desired host immunity against infectious diseases.

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          Most cited references 227

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          Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface.

          Rapid growth in nanotechnology is increasing the likelihood of engineered nanomaterials coming into contact with humans and the environment. Nanoparticles interacting with proteins, membranes, cells, DNA and organelles establish a series of nanoparticle/biological interfaces that depend on colloidal forces as well as dynamic biophysicochemical interactions. These interactions lead to the formation of protein coronas, particle wrapping, intracellular uptake and biocatalytic processes that could have biocompatible or bioadverse outcomes. For their part, the biomolecules may induce phase transformations, free energy releases, restructuring and dissolution at the nanomaterial surface. Probing these various interfaces allows the development of predictive relationships between structure and activity that are determined by nanomaterial properties such as size, shape, surface chemistry, roughness and surface coatings. This knowledge is important from the perspective of safe use of nanomaterials.
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            Neutrophil recruitment and function in health and inflammation.

            Neutrophils have traditionally been thought of as simple foot soldiers of the innate immune system with a restricted set of pro-inflammatory functions. More recently, it has become apparent that neutrophils are, in fact, complex cells capable of a vast array of specialized functions. Although neutrophils are undoubtedly major effectors of acute inflammation, several lines of evidence indicate that they also contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions and adaptive immune responses. Here, we discuss the key features of the life of a neutrophil, from its release from bone marrow to its death. We discuss the possible existence of different neutrophil subsets and their putative anti-inflammatory roles. We focus on how neutrophils are recruited to infected or injured tissues and describe differences in neutrophil recruitment between different tissues. Finally, we explain the mechanisms that are used by neutrophils to promote protective or pathological immune responses at different sites.
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              Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity.

              Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that play a central role in host cell recognition and responses to microbial pathogens. TLR-mediated recognition of components derived from a wide range of pathogens and their role in the subsequent initiation of innate immune responses is widely accepted; however, the recent discovery of non-TLR PRRs, such as C-type lectin receptors, NOD-like receptors, and RIG-I-like receptors, suggests that many aspects of innate immunity are more sophisticated and complex. In this review, we will focus on the role played by TLRs in mounting protective immune responses against infection and their crosstalk with other PRRs with respect to pathogen recognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1School of Biotechnology, KIIT University , Bhubaneswar, India
                2Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) , St. Petersburg, Russia
                3Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich , Munich, Germany
                4First Pavlov State Medical University of St.Petersburg , St. Petersburg, Russia
                5Discipline of Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore , Indore, India
                Author notes

                Edited by: Nahid Ali, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, India

                Reviewed by: Randy A. Albrecht, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, United States; Michael Schotsaert, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, United States; Katie Louise Flanagan, RMIT University, Australia

                *Correspondence: Avinash Sonawane asonawane@ 123456iiti.ac.in

                This article was submitted to Vaccines and Molecular Therapeutics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                04 October 2018
                2018
                : 9
                10.3389/fimmu.2018.02224
                6180194
                Copyright © 2018 Pati, Shevtsov and Sonawane.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Counts
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 228, Pages: 16, Words: 14090
                Funding
                Funded by: Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Ministry of Science and Technology 10.13039/501100001408
                Award ID: SR/NM/NS-1159/2016
                Funded by: Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung 10.13039/100005156
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review

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