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      Chemical Profile of the Organic Residue from Ancient Amphora Found in the Adriatic Sea Determined by Direct GC and GC-MS Analysis

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          Abstract

          An ancient organic residue was collected from the bottom of a Greco-Italian amphora found in the Adriatic Sea and investigated by direct GC and GC-MS analysis. The headspace composition was determined by HS-SPME using: (1) DVB/CAR/PDMS and (2) PDMS/DVB fibres. Higher percentages of benzene derivatives, monoterpenes and other low-molecular aliphatic compounds were obtained by method (1) in contrast to higher percentage of naphthalene and phenanthrene derivatives found by method (2). In comparison with the composition of pine resin, it is more likely that the found low-molecular aliphatic alcohols, acids, esters and carbonyls with 2-phenylethanol were trapped and preserved within the organic residue from stored wine – the amphora’s originally content. Semi-volatile diterpenes methyl dehydroabietate (33.6%) and retene (24.1%) were dominant in the residue CH 2Cl 2 solution. Other abundant compounds were 1,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene (6.8%) as well as other naphthalene and/or phenanthrene derivatives [7-(1-methylethyl)-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydronaphthalene, 7-(1-methylethyl)-1,4a-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,9,10-hexahydrophenanthrene, 7-(1-methylethyl)-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-phenanthrene, 3,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 2,3,5-trimethylphenanthrene]. Possible sources and formation pathways of the major compounds in the residue were discussed.

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          Analysis of organic residues of archaeological origin by high-temperature gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

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            ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY: UNLOCKING THE SECRETS OF WINE FLAVOR

             Susan Ebeler (2001)
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              Development, validation and application of a specific method for the quantitative determination of wine esters by headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                14 September 2011
                September 2011
                : 16
                : 9
                : 7936-7948
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, N. Tesle 10/V, 21000 Split, Croatia
                [2 ]University of Applied Sciences Marko Marulić in Knin, P. Krešimira IV 30, 22300 Knin, Croatia
                [3 ]Department of Organic Chemistry, Laboratory for Stereoselective Catalysis and Biocatalysis, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: igor@ 123456ktf-split.hr ; Tel.: +382-21-329434; Fax: +385-21-329461.
                Article
                molecules-16-07936
                10.3390/molecules16097936
                6264281
                22143551
                © 2011 by the authors;

                licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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