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      Differences in larval survival and IgG response patterns in long-lasting infections by Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella pseudospiralis in pigs

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          Abstract

          Background

          Domesticated and wild swine play an important role as reservoir hosts of Trichinella spp. and a source of infection for humans. Little is known about the survival of Trichinella larvae in muscles and the duration of anti- Trichinella antibodies in pigs with long-lasting infections.

          Methods

          Sixty pigs were divided into three groups of 20 animals and infected with 10,000 larvae of Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi or Trichinella pseudospiralis. Four pigs from each group were sacrificed at 2, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post-infection (p.i.) and the number of larvae per gram (LPG) of muscles was calculated. Serum samples were tested by ELISA and western blot using excretory/secretory (ES) and crude antigens.

          Results

          Trichinella spiralis showed the highest infectivity and immunogenicity in pigs and larvae survived in pig muscles for up to 2 years p.i. In these pigs, the IgG level significantly increased at 30 days p.i. and reached a peak at about 60 days p.i., remaining stable until the end of the experiment. In T. britovi-infected pigs, LPG was about 70 times lower than for T. spiralis at 2 months p.i. and only very few infecting larvae were detected at 6 months p.i., whereas no larvae were detected at 12, 18 and 24 months p.i. At 6 months p.i., degenerated/calcified larvae and cysts were detected in the muscles by trichinoscopy and histology. The IgG pattern showed by T. britovi-infected pigs was similar to that of T. spiralis-infected pigs, although seroconversion occurred some days later. The larval burden of T. pseudospiralis was slightly greater than for T. britovi at 2 months p.i., but no larvae were detected at 6 and 12 months p.i. In T. pseudospiralis-infected pigs, seroconversion occurred slowly, as in T. britovi-infected pigs. The IgG level showed a significant drop at 6 months p.i. and declining to the cut-off value at 12 months p.i.

          Conclusions

          The longer survival of T. spiralis in pigs in comparison with the other two species highlights its exceptional dissemination potential. These results provide an explanation of the controversial data collected by parasitological and serological tools in the course of epidemiological investigations.

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          Most cited references 56

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          The European Union One Health 2018 Zoonoses Report

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          Abstract This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2018 in 36 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and 8 non‐MS). The first and second most commonly reported zoonoses in humans were campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis, respectively. The European Union (EU) trend for confirmed human cases of these two diseases was stable during 2014–2018. The proportion of human salmonellosis cases due to Salmonella Enteritidis was at the same level in 2018 as in 2017. Of the 27 reporting MS, 16 met all Salmonella reduction targets for poultry, whereas 11 MS failed meeting at least one. The EU flock prevalence of target Salmonella serovars in breeding hens, laying hens, broilers and fattening turkeys decreased during recent years but stalled in breeding turkeys. Salmonella results from Competent Authorities for pig carcasses and for poultry tested through National Control Programmes were more frequently positive compared with food business operators. Shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in humans were the third most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU and increased from 2014 to 2018. Yersiniosis was the fourth most frequently reported zoonosis in humans in 2018 with a stable trend in 2014–2018. The number of reported confirmed listeriosis cases further increased in 2018, despite Listeria rarely exceeding the EU food safety limit tested in ready‐to‐eat food. In total, 5,146 food‐ and waterborne outbreaks were reported. Salmonella was the most commonly detected agent with S. Enteritidis causing one in five outbreaks. Salmonella in eggs and egg products was the highest risk agent/food pair. A large increase of human West Nile virus infections was reported in 2018. The report further updates on bovine tuberculosis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) and tularaemia.
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              Abstract This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2017 in 37 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and nine non‐MS). Campylobacteriosis was the commonest reported zoonosis and its EU trend for confirmed human cases increasing since 2008 stabilised during 2013–2017. The decreasing EU trend for confirmed human salmonellosis cases since 2008 ended during 2013–2017, and the proportion of human Salmonella Enteritidis cases increased, mostly due to one MS starting to report serotype data. Sixteen MS met all Salmonella reduction targets for poultry, whereas 12 MS failed meeting at least one. The EU flock prevalence of target Salmonella serovars in breeding hens, laying hens, broilers and fattening turkeys decreased or remained stable compared to 2016, and slightly increased in breeding turkeys. Salmonella results on pig carcases and target Salmonella serovar results for poultry from competent authorities tended to be generally higher compared to those from food business operators. The notification rate of human listeriosis further increased in 2017, despite Listeria seldom exceeding the EU food safety limit in ready‐to‐eat food. The decreasing EU trend for confirmed yersiniosis cases since 2008 stabilised during 2013–2017. The number of confirmed shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in humans was stable. A total of 5,079 food‐borne (including waterborne) outbreaks were reported. Salmonella was the commonest detected agent with S. Enteritidis causing one out of seven outbreaks, followed by other bacteria, bacterial toxins and viruses. The agent was unknown in 37.6% of all outbreaks. Salmonella in eggs and Salmonella in meat and meat products were the highest risk agent/food pairs. The report further summarises trends and sources for bovine tuberculosis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus and tularaemia.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                edoardo.pozio@iss.it
                giuseppe.merialdi@izsler.it
                e.licata@ausl.mo.it
                dellacasa@misterweb.it
                massimo.fabiani@iss.it
                marco.amati@iss.it
                simona.cherchi@iss.it
                mattia.ramini@izsler.it
                valerio.faeti@crea.gov.it
                maria.interisano@iss.it
                alessandra.ludovisi@iss.it
                gianluca.rugna@izsler.it
                gianluca.marucci@iss.it
                daniele.tonanzi@iss.it
                mariaangeles.gomezmorales@iss.it
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-3305
                16 October 2020
                16 October 2020
                2020
                : 13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.416651.1, ISNI 0000 0000 9120 6856, Department of Infectious Diseases, , Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ; viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
                [2 ]Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale of Lombardy and Emilia Romagna, via Pietro Fiorini 5, 40127 Bologna, Italy
                [3 ]GRID grid.423898.c, Department of Public Health, , Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale of Modena, ; Strada Martiniana 21, 4112 Baggiovara, Modena Italy
                [4 ]GRID grid.423616.4, ISNI 0000 0001 2293 6756, Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria, Centro di Ricerca Zootecnica e Acquacoltura, Sede di Modena, ; via Beccastecca 345, 41018 S. Cesario sul Panaro (MO), Italy
                Article
                4394
                10.1186/s13071-020-04394-7
                7566126
                33066824
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000780, European Commission;
                Award ID: European Commission, contract SANCO/2006/FOOD SAFETY/032
                Categories
                Research
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                © The Author(s) 2020

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