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      Hypoxia-inducible factor 3A gene expression and methylation in adipose tissue is related to adipose tissue dysfunction

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          Abstract

          Recently, a genome-wide analysis identified DNA methylation of the HIF3A ( hypoxia-inducible factor 3A) as strongest correlate of BMI. Here we tested the hypothesis that HIF3A mRNA expression and CpG-sites methylation in adipose tissue (AT) and genetic variants in HIF3A are related to parameters of AT distribution and function. In paired samples of subcutaneous AT (SAT) and visceral AT (VAT) from 603 individuals, we measured HIF3A mRNA expression and analyzed its correlation with obesity and related traits. In subgroups of individuals, we investigated the effects on HIF3A genetic variants on its AT expression (N = 603) and methylation of CpG-sites (N = 87). HIF3A expression was significantly higher in SAT compared to VAT and correlated with obesity and parameters of AT dysfunction (including CRP and leucocytes count). HIF3A methylation at cg22891070 was significantly higher in VAT compared to SAT and correlated with BMI, abdominal SAT and VAT area. Rs8102595 showed a nominal significant association with AT HIF3A methylation levels as well as with obesity and fat distribution. HIF3A expression and methylation in AT are fat depot specific, related to obesity and AT dysfunction. Our data support the hypothesis that HIF pathways may play an important role in the development of AT dysfunction in obesity.

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          Most cited references 27

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          The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments.

          The simultaneous increases in obesity in almost all countries seem to be driven mainly by changes in the global food system, which is producing more processed, affordable, and effectively marketed food than ever before. This passive overconsumption of energy leading to obesity is a predictable outcome of market economies predicated on consumption-based growth. The global food system drivers interact with local environmental factors to create a wide variation in obesity prevalence between populations. Within populations, the interactions between environmental and individual factors, including genetic makeup, explain variability in body size between individuals. However, even with this individual variation, the epidemic has predictable patterns in subpopulations. In low-income countries, obesity mostly affects middle-aged adults (especially women) from wealthy, urban environments; whereas in high-income countries it affects both sexes and all ages, but is disproportionately greater in disadvantaged groups. Unlike other major causes of preventable death and disability, such as tobacco use, injuries, and infectious diseases, there are no exemplar populations in which the obesity epidemic has been reversed by public health measures. This absence increases the urgency for evidence-creating policy action, with a priority on reduction of the supply-side drivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Annotation of functional variation in personal genomes using RegulomeDB.

            As the sequencing of healthy and disease genomes becomes more commonplace, detailed annotation provides interpretation for individual variation responsible for normal and disease phenotypes. Current approaches focus on direct changes in protein coding genes, particularly nonsynonymous mutations that directly affect the gene product. However, most individual variation occurs outside of genes and, indeed, most markers generated from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify variants outside of coding segments. Identification of potential regulatory changes that perturb these sites will lead to a better localization of truly functional variants and interpretation of their effects. We have developed a novel approach and database, RegulomeDB, which guides interpretation of regulatory variants in the human genome. RegulomeDB includes high-throughput, experimental data sets from ENCODE and other sources, as well as computational predictions and manual annotations to identify putative regulatory potential and identify functional variants. These data sources are combined into a powerful tool that scores variants to help separate functional variants from a large pool and provides a small set of putative sites with testable hypotheses as to their function. We demonstrate the applicability of this tool to the annotation of noncoding variants from 69 full sequenced genomes as well as that of a personal genome, where thousands of functionally associated variants were identified. Moreover, we demonstrate a GWAS where the database is able to quickly identify the known associated functional variant and provide a hypothesis as to its function. Overall, we expect this approach and resource to be valuable for the annotation of human genome sequences.
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              Hypoxia-inducible factors and the response to hypoxic stress.

              Oxygen (O(2)) is an essential nutrient that serves as a key substrate in cellular metabolism and bioenergetics. In a variety of physiological and pathological states, organisms encounter insufficient O(2) availability, or hypoxia. In order to cope with this stress, evolutionarily conserved responses are engaged. In mammals, the primary transcriptional response to hypoxic stress is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). While canonically regulated by prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing enzymes (PHDs), the HIFα subunits are intricately responsive to numerous other factors, including factor-inhibiting HIF1α (FIH1), sirtuins, and metabolites. These transcription factors function in normal tissue homeostasis and impinge on critical aspects of disease progression and recovery. Insights from basic HIF biology are being translated into pharmaceuticals targeting the HIF pathway. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Dermatology und Neurology, Department of Endocrinology und Nephrology, University of Leipzig , Leipzig, Germany
                [2 ]Leipzig University Medical Center, IFB AdiposityDiseases, University of Leipzig , Leipzig, Germany
                [3 ]Institute of Human Genetics, University of Würzburg , Würzburg, Germany
                [4 ]Clinic of Visceral Surgery, Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe , Karlsruhe, Germany
                [5 ]Department of Surgery, University of Leipzig , Leipzig, Germany
                [6 ]Municipal Clinic Dresden-Neustadt , Dresden, Germany
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                27 June 2016
                2016
                : 6
                srep27969
                10.1038/srep27969
                4921806
                27346320
                Copyright © 2016, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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