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Tephrostratigraphy of the late glacial and Holocene sediments of Puyehue Lake (Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile, 40°S)

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Quaternary Research

Elsevier BV

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      Abstract

      We document the mineralogical and geochemical composition of tephra layers identified in the late Quaternary sediments of Puyehue Lake (Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes, Chile, 40°S) to identify the source volcanoes and to present the first tephrostratigraphic model for the region. For the last millennium, we propose a multi-criteria correlation model based on five tephra layers identified at seven coring sites. The two upper tephras are thin fine-grained green layers composed of more than 80% rhyodacitic glass shards, and associated to the AD 1960 and AD 1921–22 eruptions of the Puyehue-Cordon de Caulle volcanic complex. The third tephra is a sandy layer dominated by orthopyroxene, and related to the AD 1907 eruption of Rininahue maar. An olivine-rich tephra was deposited at the end of the 16th century, and a tephra characterized by a two-pyroxene association marks the second half of the first millennium AD. In addition, we detail the tephra succession of an 11.22-m-long sediment core covering the last 18,000 yr. The results demonstrate that the central province of the Southern Volcanic Zone has been active throughout the last deglaciation and the Holocene, with no increase in volcanic activity during glacial unloading.

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        The focus of this paper is the conversion of radiocarbon ages to calibrated (cal) ages for the interval 24,000–0 cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), based upon a sample set of dendrochronologically dated tree rings, uranium-thorium dated corals, and varve-counted marine sediment. The14C age–cal age information, produced by many laboratories, is converted to Δ14C profiles and calibration curves, for the atmosphere as well as the oceans. We discuss offsets in measuredl4C ages and the errors therein, regional14C age differences, tree–coral14C age comparisons and the time dependence of marine reservoir ages, and evaluate decadalvs. single-year14C results. Changes in oceanic deepwater circulation, especially for the 16,000–11,000 cal BP interval, are reflected in the Δ14C values of INTCAL98.
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          A Chemical Classification of Volcanic Rocks Based on the Total Alkali-Silica Diagram

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            applab
            Quaternary Research
            Quat. res.
            Elsevier BV
            0033-5894
            1096-0287
            November 2008
            January 2017
            : 70
            : 03
            : 343-357
            10.1016/j.yqres.2008.06.001
            © 2008

            http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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