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      Clinicopathological significance and potential drug targeting of CDH1 in lung cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review

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          Abstract

          Background

          CDH1 is a protein encoded by the CDH1 gene in humans. Mutations in this gene are linked with several types of cancer. Loss of CDH1 function contributes to the progression of cancer by increasing proliferation, invasion, and/or metastasis. However, the association between and clinicopathological significance of CDH1 promoter methylation and lung cancer remains unclear. In this study, we systematically reviewed the studies of CDH1 promoter methylation and lung cancer, and evaluated the association between CDH1 promoter methylation and lung cancer using meta-analysis methods.

          Methods

          A comprehensive search of the PubMed and Embase databases was performed up to July 2014. The methodological quality of the studies was also evaluated. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Analyses of pooled data were performed. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and summarized.

          Results

          Finally, an analysis of 866 patients with non-small cell lung cancer from 13 eligible studies was performed. The CDH1 methylation level in the cancer group was significantly higher than in the controls (OR 3.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.87–5.27, P<0.00001). However, there were no correlations between CDH1 promoter methylation and clinicopathological characteristics (sex status, OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.41–1.50, P=0.46; smoking history, OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.53–1.79, P=0.93; pathological type, OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.59–1.60, P=0.91; clinical staging, OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.81–2.68, P=0.2; lymph node metastasis, OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.13–3.63, P=0.65; or differentiation degree, OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.34–3.02, P=0.99).

          Conclusion

          The results of this meta-analysis suggest that CDH1 methylation is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. CDH1 hypermethylation, which induces inactivation of the CDH1 gene, plays an important role in carcinogenesis and may serve as a potential drug target in lung cancer. However, CDH1 methylation does not correlate with other factors, such as smoking history, clinical stage, pathological type, sex status, lymph node metastasis, or degree of differentiation.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Cancer statistics, 2007.

          Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. This report considers incidence data through 2003 and mortality data through 2004. Incidence and death rates are age-standardized to the 2000 US standard million population. A total of 1,444,920 new cancer cases and 559,650 deaths for cancers are projected to occur in the United States in 2007. Notable trends in cancer incidence and mortality rates include stabilization of the age-standardized, delay-adjusted incidence rates for all cancers combined in men from 1995 through 2003; a continuing increase in the incidence rate by 0.3% per year in women; and a 13.6% total decrease in age-standardized cancer death rates among men and women combined between 1991 and 2004. This report also examines cancer incidence, mortality, and survival by site, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic area, and calendar year, as well as the proportionate contribution of selected sites to the overall trends. While the absolute number of cancer deaths decreased for the second consecutive year in the United States (by more than 3,000 from 2003 to 2004) and much progress has been made in reducing mortality rates and improving survival, cancer still accounts for more deaths than heart disease in persons under age 85 years. Further progress can be accelerated by supporting new discoveries and by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population.
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              Detection of aberrant promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in serum DNA from non-small cell lung cancer patients.

              Recent evidence suggests that tumor cells may release DNA into the circulation, which is enriched in the serum and plasma, allowing detection of ras and p53 mutations and microsatellite alterations in the serum DNA of cancer patients. We examined whether aberrant DNA methylation might also be found in the serum of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. We tested 22 patients with non-small cell lung cancer using methylation-specific PCR, searching for promoter hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor gene p16, the putative metastasis suppressor gene death-associated protein kinase, the detoxification gene glutathione S-transferase P1, and the DNA repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase. Aberrant methylation of at least one of these genes was detected in 15 of 22 (68%) NSCLC tumors but not in any paired normal lung tissue. In these primary tumors with methylation, 11 of 15 (73%) samples also had abnormal methylated DNA in the matched serum samples. Moreover, none of the sera from patients with tumors not demonstrating methylation was positive. Abnormal promoter methylation in serum DNA was found in all tumor stages. Although these results need to be confirmed in larger studies and in other tumor types, detection of aberrant promoter hypermethylation of cancer-related genes in serum may be useful for cancer diagnosis or the detection of recurrence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                15 April 2015
                : 9
                : 2171-2178
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Research Center for Sectional and Imaging Anatomy, Shandong University School of Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Respiratory Medicine, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Respiratory Diseases, People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Shuwei Liu, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Research Center for Sectional and Imaging Anatomy Shandong University School of Medicine, 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 0531 8838 2171, Fax +531 8856 3495, Email shuweiliu01@ 123456yeah.net
                Article
                dddt-9-2171
                10.2147/DDDT.S78537
                4404966
                25931811
                © 2015 Yu et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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