Carboxymethyllysine (CML) is currently recognized as a major advanced glycation end product and a marker for glycoxidation. Plasma CML levels are increased in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). However, significance and mechanism of CML accumulation in these patients are poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to analyze CML in soluble and collagen-binding fractions of the dermis to investigate CML deposition and formation and collagen damage related to CML accumulation in patients with CRF. Skin samples (among them autopsy samples) were obtained from 33 subjects: 8 nondiabetic CRF patients, 7 diabetic predialysis patients with CRF (CRF-DM), 7 hemodialysis patients, and 11 control subjects without either CRF or DM. The dermal samples were extracted sequentially by phosphate-buffered normal saline, pepsin, and collagenase. The extracts were referred to as the soluble fraction and the proteinase-extracted fraction (including pepsin-extracted and collagenase-extracted fractions). Our ELISA assay for CML in dermal collagen from predialysis patients with CRF (CRF and CRF-DM groups) demonstrated that the levels of CML in both the soluble fraction (containing soluble CML which was mainly determined by serum clearance) and the structural collagen-binding proteinase-extracted fraction (in which high CML levels could be a strong indication of in situ formation) were increased and could not be completely reduced after hemodialysis in CRF-DM and CRF groups. These results suggest that accumulation of CML may be due to both a low serum clearance and/or increased in situ CML formation in CRF. CML contents in the proteinase extracted fraction inversely correlated with the susceptibility of collagen to extraction by proteinases (n = 33, r = –0.59, p < 0.001). Our results provide the first biochemical evidence that CML level is increased in both the soluble and collagen-binding fractions and that increased CML level resulted in increased fractions of proteinase-resistant collagen in dermal extracts of patients with CRF.