+1 Recommend
1 collections
      Call for Papers in Kidney and Blood Pressure ResearchKidney Function and Omics Science

      Submission Deadline: December 20, 2023

      Submit now

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Carboxymethyllysine in Dermal Tissues of Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: Relevance to Glycoxidation Damage


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Carboxymethyllysine (CML) is currently recognized as a major advanced glycation end product and a marker for glycoxidation. Plasma CML levels are increased in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). However, significance and mechanism of CML accumulation in these patients are poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to analyze CML in soluble and collagen-binding fractions of the dermis to investigate CML deposition and formation and collagen damage related to CML accumulation in patients with CRF. Skin samples (among them autopsy samples) were obtained from 33 subjects: 8 nondiabetic CRF patients, 7 diabetic predialysis patients with CRF (CRF-DM), 7 hemodialysis patients, and 11 control subjects without either CRF or DM. The dermal samples were extracted sequentially by phosphate-buffered normal saline, pepsin, and collagenase. The extracts were referred to as the soluble fraction and the proteinase-extracted fraction (including pepsin-extracted and collagenase-extracted fractions). Our ELISA assay for CML in dermal collagen from predialysis patients with CRF (CRF and CRF-DM groups) demonstrated that the levels of CML in both the soluble fraction (containing soluble CML which was mainly determined by serum clearance) and the structural collagen-binding proteinase-extracted fraction (in which high CML levels could be a strong indication of in situ formation) were increased and could not be completely reduced after hemodialysis in CRF-DM and CRF groups. These results suggest that accumulation of CML may be due to both a low serum clearance and/or increased in situ CML formation in CRF. CML contents in the proteinase extracted fraction inversely correlated with the susceptibility of collagen to extraction by proteinases (n = 33, r = –0.59, p < 0.001). Our results provide the first biochemical evidence that CML level is increased in both the soluble and collagen-binding fractions and that increased CML level resulted in increased fractions of proteinase-resistant collagen in dermal extracts of patients with CRF.

          Related collections

          Most cited references2

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Mechanism of protein modification by glyoxal and glycolaldehyde, reactive intermediates of the Maillard reaction.

          The role of glyoxal and glycolaldehyde in protein cross-linking and N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) formation during Maillard reaction under physiological conditions was investigated. Incubation of bovine serum albumin with these reagents lead to rapid formation of C-2-imine cross-links and CML. Initial CML formation rate from glyoxal was not dependent on oxidation, suggesting an intramolecular Cannizzaro reaction. CML formation from glucose/lysine or Amadori product of both was strongly dependent on oxidation. Blocking of Amadori product by boric acid totally suppressed CML formation from Amadori product, but only by 37% in the glucose/lysine system. Trapping of glyoxal with aminoguanidine hardly suppressed CML formation from Amadori product, whereas it blocked 50% of CML production in the glucose/lysine system. While these results would support a significant role for glucose autoxidation in CML formation, the addition of lysine to a glucose/aminoguanidine incubation system catalyzed glyoxal-triazine formation 7-fold, thereby strongly suggesting that glucose autoxidation is not a factor for glyoxal-mediated CML formation. Based on these results, it can be estimated that approximately 50% of the CML forming in a glucose/lysine system originates from oxidation of Amadori product, and 40-50% originates from a pre-Amadori stage largely independent from glucose autoxidation. This step may be related to the so-called Namiki pathway of the Maillard reaction.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Identification of pentosidine as a native structure for advanced glycation end products in beta-2-microglobulin-containing amyloid fibrils in patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis.

            beta-2-Microglobulin (beta-2m) is a major constituent of amyloid fibrils in patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA). Recently, we found that the pigmented and fluorescent adducts formed nonenzymatically between sugar and protein, known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), were present in beta-2m-containing amyloid fibrils, suggesting the possible involvement of AGE-modified beta-2m in bone and joint destruction in DRA. As an extension of our search for the native structure of AGEs in beta-2m of patients with DRA, the present study focused on pentosidine, a fluorescent cross-linked glycoxidation product. Determination by both HPLC assay and competitive ELISA demonstrated a significant amount of pentosidine in amyloid-fibril beta-2m from long-term hemodialysis patients with DRA, and the acidic isoform of beta-2m in the serum and urine of hemodialysis patients. A further immunohistochemical study revealed the positive immunostaining for pentosidine and immunoreactive AGEs and beta-2m in macrophage-infiltrated amyloid deposits of long-term hemodialysis patients with DRA. These findings implicate a potential link of glycoxidation products in long-lived beta-2m-containing amyloid fibrils to the pathogenesis of DRA.

              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              25 April 2001
              : 88
              : 1
              : 30-35
              a2nd Department of Pathology, Fukuoka University Medical School, Fukuoka, and b2nd Department of Biochemistry, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto, Japan
              45955 Nephron 2001;88:30–35
              © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 33, Pages: 6
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45955
              Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/45955
              Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
              Original Paper

              Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
              Chronic renal failure,Carboxymethyllysine,Collagen,Glycation,Glycoxidation


              Comment on this article