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      Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid

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      Food Science & Nutrition
      Wiley Periodicals Inc
      Antioxidants, phenolic compounds, phytic acid, rice, vitamin E, γ-oryzanol

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          Abstract

          Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

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          Most cited references144

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          Anthocyanin composition in black, blue, pink, purple, and red cereal grains.

          Anthocyanin pigments from a wide variety of edible and ornamental black, blue, pink, purple, red, and white wheat, barley, corn, rice, and wild rice were identified and quantified to evaluate their potential as natural colorants or functional food ingredients. The total anthocyanin contents varied significantly and exhibited a range of 7-3276 microg/g. Some grains, such as red rice and black rice, contained a limited number of pigments, whereas others, such as blue, pink, purple, and red corns, had complex anthocyanin profiles. Of the 42 anthocyanin compounds observed, 9 were characterized by comparison of the spectroscopic and chromatographic properties with those of authentic standards. The remaining compounds were tentatively identified on the basis of spectroscopic properties and electrospray ionization mass spectra. The most abundant anthocyanins were cyanidin 3-glucoside in black and red rices and in blue, purple, and red corns, pelargonidin 3-glucoside in pink corn, and delphinidin 3-glucoside in blue wheat.
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            Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of black rice bran of different commercially available varieties.

            Increased consumption of whole grains has been associated with reduced risk of developing major chronic diseases. These health benefits have been attributed in part to their unique phytochemicals. Previous studies on black rice mainly focused on anthocyanins. Little is known about the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities of different black rice varieties. The objective of this study was to determine the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of rice bran samples from 12 diverse varieties of black rice. The free, bound, and total phenolic contents of black rice bran samples ranged from 2086 to 7043, from 221.2 to 382.7, and from 2365 to 7367 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of dry weight (DW), respectively. The percentage contribution of free phenolics to the total ranged from 88.2 to 95.6%. The average values of free, bound, and total phenolic contents of black rice bran were 8, 1.5, and 6 times higher than those of white rice bran, respectively (p < 0.05). The free, bound, and total flavonoid contents of black rice bran samples ranged from 3462 to 12061, from 126.7 to 386.9, and from 3596 to 12448 mg of catechin equiv/100 g of DW, respectively. The percentage contribution of free flavonoids to the total ranged from 96.3 to 97.6%. The average values of free, bound, and total flavonoid contents of black rice bran were 7.4, 1.9, and 6.7 times higher than those of white rice bran, respectively (p < 0.05). The free, bound, and total anthocyanin contents of black rice bran samples ranged from 1227 to 5096, from 4.89 to 8.23, and from 1231 to 5101 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside equiv/100 g of DW, respectively. The percentage contribution of free anthocyanins to the total ranged from 99.5 to 99.9%. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside were detected in black rice bran samples and ranged from 736.6 to 2557, from 22.70 to 96.62, and from 100.7 to 534.2 mg/100 g of DW, respectively. The free, bound, and total antioxidant activities of black rice bran samples ranged from 476.9 to 180, from 47.91 to 79.48, and from 537.5 to 1876 mumol of Trolox equiv/g of DW, respectively. The percentage contribution of free antioxidant activity to the total ranged from 88.7 to 96.0%. The average values of free, bound, and total antioxidant activity of black rice bran were more than 8, 1.5, and 6 times higher than those of white rice bran, respectively (p < 0.05). The total antioxidant activity of black rice bran was correlated to the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total anthocyanins and also was significantly correlated to the contents of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside. These results indicate that there are significant differences in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity among the different black rice varieties. Black rice bran has higher content of phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins and has higher antioxidant activity when compared to white rice bran. Interestingly, the phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins of black rice bran are mainly present in free form. Knowing the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of black rice bran gives insights to its potential application to promote health.
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              Total antioxidant capacity of spices, dried fruits, nuts, pulses, cereals and sweets consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays.

              With the aim to expand the Italian total antioxidant capacity (TAC) database, the TAC values of 11 spices, 5 dried fruits, 7 sweets, 18 cereal products, 5 pulses, and 6 nuts were determined using three different assays and considering the contribution of bound antioxidant compounds in fiber-rich foods (i. e. cereals, legumes, and nuts). Among spices, saffron displayed the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas among dried fruits, prune exhibited the highest value. The TAC values of all the chocolates analyzed were far higher than the other sweet extracts measured. Among cereal products, whole meal buckwheat and wheat bran had the greatest TAC. Among pulses and nuts, broad bean, lentil and walnuts had the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas chickpeas, pine nuts and peanuts were less effective. The contribution of bound phytochemicals to the overall TAC was relevant in cereals as well as in nuts and pulses. The complete TAC database could be utilized to properly investigate the role of dietary antioxidants in disease prevention.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Food Sci Nutr
                Food Sci Nutr
                fsn3
                Food Science & Nutrition
                Wiley Periodicals Inc
                2048-7177
                2048-7177
                March 2014
                21 January 2014
                : 2
                : 2
                : 75-104
                Affiliations
                CITAB—Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro 5001-801, Vila Real, Portugal
                Author notes
                Correspondence Piebiep Goufo, CITAB—Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal. Tel: +351 259 350 751; Fax: +351 259 350 327; E-mail: pgoufo@ 123456utad.pt
                Article
                10.1002/fsn3.86
                3959956
                24804068
                3641ce58-4ace-450e-b821-608ac9cce6ea
                © 2014 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 02 October 2013
                : 18 November 2013
                : 25 November 2013
                Categories
                Review

                antioxidants,phenolic compounds,phytic acid,rice,vitamin e,γ-oryzanol

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