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      Health care utilization and expenditures among Medicaid beneficiaries with neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury

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          Abstract

          Background

          The study aimed to evaluate health care resource utilization (HRU) and costs for neuropathic pain (NeP) secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) among Medicaid beneficiaries.

          Methods

          The retrospective longitudinal cohort study used Medicaid beneficiary claims with SCI and evidence of NeP (SCI-NeP cohort) matched with a cohort without NeP (SCI-only cohort). Patients had continuous Medicaid eligibility 6 months pre- and 12 months postindex, defined by either a diagnosis of central NeP (ICD-9-CM code 338.0x) or a pharmacy claim for an NeP-related antiepileptic or antidepressant drug within 12 months following first SCI diagnosis. Demographics, clinical characteristics, HRU, and expenditures were compared between cohorts.

          Results

          Propensity score-matched cohorts each consisted of 546 patients. Postindex percentages of patients with physician office visits, emergency department visits, SCI- and pain-related procedures, and outpatient prescription utilization were all significantly higher for SCI-NeP ( P<0.001). Using regression models to account for covariates, adjusted mean expenditures were US$47,518 for SCI-NeP and US$30,150 for SCI only, yielding incremental costs of US$17,369 (95% confidence interval US$9,753 to US$26,555) for SCI-NeP. Factors significantly associated with increased cost included SCI type, trauma-related SCI, and comorbidity burden.

          Conclusion

          Significantly higher HRU and total costs were incurred by Medicaid patients with NeP secondary to SCI compared with matched SCI-only patients.

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          Most cited references 23

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          A systematic review of pharmacologic treatments of pain after spinal cord injury.

          To conduct a systematic review of published research on the pharmacologic treatment of pain after spinal cord injury (SCI). MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published 1980 to June 2009 addressing the treatment of pain post SCI. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were assessed for methodologic quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) assessment scale, whereas non-RCTs were assessed by using the Downs and Black (D&B) evaluation tool. A level of evidence was assigned to each intervention by using a modified Sackett scale. The review included RCTs and non-RCTs, which included prospective controlled trials, cohort, case series, case-control, pre-post studies, and post studies. Case studies were included only when there were no other studies found. Data extracted included the PEDro or D&B score, the type of study, a brief summary of intervention outcomes, the type of pain, the type of pain scale, and the study findings. Articles selected for this particular review evaluated different interventions in the pharmacologic management of pain after SCI. Twenty-eight studies met inclusion criteria; there were 21 randomized controlled trials; of these, 19 had level 1 evidence. Treatments were divided into 5 categories: anticonvulsants, antidepressants, analgesics, cannabinoids, and antispasticity medications. Most studies did not specify participants' types of pain, making it difficult to identify the type of pain being targeted by the treatment. Anticonvulsant and analgesic drugs had the highest levels of evidence and were the drugs most often studied. Gabapentin and pregabalin had strong evidence (5 level 1 RCTs) for effectiveness in treating post-SCI neuropathic pain as did intravenous analgesics (lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine), but the latter only had short-term benefits. Tricyclic antidepressants only showed benefit for neuropathic pain in depressed persons. Intrathecal baclofen reduced musculoskeletal pain associated with spasticity; however, there was conflicting evidence for the reduction in neuropathic pain. Studies assessing the effectiveness of opioids were limited and revealed only small benefits. Cannabinoids showed conflicting evidence in improving spasticity-related pain. Clonidine and morphine when given together had a significant synergistic neuropathic pain-relieving effect.
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            Burden of spinal cord injury-related neuropathic pain in the United States: retrospective chart review and cross-sectional survey.

            Cross-sectional, observational study. Characterize demographic and clinical characteristics, health status, pain, function, productivity and economic burden in spinal cord injury-related neuropathic pain (SCI-NeP) subjects, by pain severity. United States. One hundred and three subjects diagnosed with SCI-NeP recruited during routine primary care or specialty physician office visits completed a questionnaire to assess patient-reported outcomes. Physicians completed a case report form on inclusion/exclusion criteria, subject clinical characteristics and health-care resource use (HRU) based on 6-month retrospective chart review. Subjects' mean age was 48.7, 69.9% were male and 48.5% were unable to walk. The most frequently reported comorbidities were sleep disturbance/insomnia (28.2%), depressive symptoms (25.2%) and anxiety (23.3%). Subjects' mean pain severity score was 5.3 (0-10 scale), and 77.7% reported moderate or severe pain. On a 0-10 scale, subjects' reported moderate pain interference with function: mean 5.4. Subjects' health status, as measured by the EuroQol 5-dimensions health-state utility, was 0.49 (-0.11 to 1.00 scale). Pain interference with function and health status were significantly worse among subjects with more severe pain (P<0.0005). Among employed subjects (13.6%), overall work impairment was 38.0%. The proportion of subjects who were prescribed ≥1 medication was 94.2%, and the mean number of physician office visits in past 6 months due to SCI-NeP was 2.2. Total annualized cost per subject was $26 270 (direct: $8636, indirect: $17 634). SCI-NeP subjects exhibited high pain levels, despite active management. Pain levels were associated with poor function, low health status and lost productivity. HRU was prevalent, and costs, particularly indirect, were substantial, highlighting unmet need. This study was supported by Pfizer, Inc.
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              Pain report and the relationship of pain to physical factors in the first 6 months following spinal cord injury.

              A prospective, longitudinal study of 100 people with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) was performed to determine the time of onset. prevalence and severity of different types of pain (musculoskeletal, visceral, neuropathic at level, neuropathic below level) at 2, 4, 8, 13 and 26 weeks following SCI. In addition, we sought to determine the relationship between physical factors such as level of lesion, completeness and clinical SCI syndrome and the presence of pain. At 6 months following SCI, 40% of people had musculoskeletal pain, none had visceral pain, 36% had neuropathic at level pain and 19% had neuropathic below level pain. When all types of pain were included, at 6 months following injury, 64% of people in the study had pain, and 21% of people had pain that was rated as severe. Those with neuropathic below level pain were most likely to report their pain as severe or excruciating. There was no relationship between the presence of pain overall and level or completeness of lesion, or type of injury. Significant differences were found, however, when specific types of pain were examined. Musculoskeletal pain was more common in people with thoracic level injuries. Neuropathic pain associated with allodynia was more common in people who had incomplete spinal cord lesions, cervical rather than thoracic spinal cord lesions, and central cord syndrome. Therefore, this study suggests that most people continue to experience pain 6 months following spinal cord injury and 21% of people continue to experience severe pain. While the presence or absence of pain overall does not appear to be related to physical factors following SCI, there does appear to be a relationship between physical factors and pain when the pain is classified into specific types.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2014
                01 July 2014
                : 7
                : 379-387
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Truven Health Analytics, Bethesda, MD, USA
                [2 ]Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA
                [3 ]Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT, USA
                [4 ]Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA
                [5 ]Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jay M Margolis, Truven Health Analytics, 332 Bryn Mawr Ave, Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004, USA, Tel +1 610 667 4718, Fax +1 610 667 4718, Email jay.margolis@ 123456truvenhealth.com
                Article
                jpr-7-379
                10.2147/JPR.S63796
                4085322
                25061337
                © 2014 Margolis et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                spinal cord injuries, burden of illness

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