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      Reduced Capacity of Mononuclear Cells to Synthesize Cytokines against an Inflammatory Stimulus in Uremic Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: The local production of cytokines and phagocytosis is pivotal in innate immunity. Uremic patients have a high infectious morbidity, but it remains unclear if this arises from incompetence of these local cellular functions. Methods: In 30 predialysis uremic patients and 20 controls, we studied the intracellular cytokine synthesis by mononuclear cells in response to stimulation. Moreover, phagocytic activity by leukocytes was tested. Lipopolysaccharide- or mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood cells were labeled with anti-CD14 and -CD4 antibodies, respectively and subjected to intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 synthesis was examined in CD14<sup>+</sup> monocytes. IFN-γ and IL-4 synthesis was examined in CD4<sup>+</sup> helper T cells to determine their Th1 or Th2 phenotype. The flow cytometric analysis of phagocytosis of opsonized bacteria was performed in whole blood. Results: Uremic patients exhibited a significantly reduced monokine response and inhibited development of helper T cells into Th1 or Th2 phenotypes compared with control subjects. Their phagocytic activity was comparable to control subjects. No clinical parameters were linked to in vitro cytokine production and phagocytic activity. Conclusions: Mononuclear cells in uremic patients are hyporeactive to inflammatory challenge and this may be one reason why uremic patients are vulnerable to infections.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Novel strategies for the treatment of sepsis.

          The history of therapeutic interventions in clinical trials for sepsis has been referred to as the "graveyard for pharmaceutical companies." That is now set to change, as research provides hope for new approaches that will be therapeutically effective in humans with sepsis.
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            Heterogeneity of intracellular cytokine synthesis at the single-cell level in polarized T helper 1 and T helper 2 populations

            CD4+ T helper (Th) cells can be classified into different types based on their cytokine profile. Cells with these polarized patterns of cytokine production have been termed Th1 and Th2, and can be distinguished functionally by the production of IFN-gamma and IL-4, respectively. These phenotypes are crucial in determining the type of immune response that develops after antigen priming. There are no surface markers that define them, and cytokine immunoassay or mRNA analysis both have limitations for characterization of single cells. Using immunofluorescent detection of intracellular IFN-gamma and IL-4, we have studied the emergence of Th1 and Th2 cells in response to antigen exposure and the patterns of cytokine synthesis in established T cell clones. IFN-gamma production by Th1 clones was detectable in almost all cells by 4 h, and it continued in most cells for > 24 h. IL- 4 production in Th2 cells peaked at 4 h, but declined rapidly. In Th0 cells containing both cytokines, fewer cells produced IFN-gamma, which did not appear until IL-4 synthesis declined. Cocultivation of clones showed no such cross-regulation. Antigen stimulation of transgenic T cells expressing an ovalbumin-specific T cell receptor generated Th2 cells, probably as a result of endogenous IL-4 production. Addition of IL-12 and/or anti-IL-4 caused Th1 cells to develop, while some Th0 cells were seen when IL-12 alone was added. These results show that stimulation in the presence of polarizing stimuli results in cells producing either IFN-gamma or IL-4, but that coproduction can occur in rare cells under defined conditions.
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              Proinflammatory cytokines and sepsis syndrome: not enough, or too much of a good thing?

               M Netea (2003)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2006
                October 2006
                07 July 2006
                : 104
                : 3
                : c113-c119
                Affiliations
                Department of Nephrology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Kidney Center, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
                Article
                94446 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;104:c113–c119
                10.1159/000094446
                16837784
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 22, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/94446
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