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      Patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and health outcomes among COPD phenotypes

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          Recent literature has suggested that emphysema and chronic bronchitis, traditionally considered to be entities overlapping within chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), may be distinct disorders. Few studies have examined the differences in patient characteristics and health outcomes between these conditions. This study examined whether COPD phenotypes represent distinct patient populations, in a large nationally representative US sample.


          Data were obtained from the 2010 US National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS). NHWS respondents (n = 75,000) were categorized as a COPD phenotype based on their self-reported diagnosis of COPD only (n = 970), emphysema only (n = 399), or chronic bronchitis only (n = 2071). Phenotypes were compared on demographics, health characteristics, treatment patterns, health outcomes, work productivity, and resource use. Variables were compared using Chi-square and analysis of variance tests for categorical and continuous outcomes, respectively. Health outcomes were also examined using regression modeling, controlling for demographic and health characteristic covariates.


          Patients with chronic bronchitis were significantly younger (51.38 years versus 63.24 years for COPD versus 63.30 years for emphysema, P < 0.05) and more likely to be employed (46.98% versus 23.81% for COPD versus 28.33% for emphysema, P < 0.05). Relative to the other phenotypes, patients with chronic bronchitis were also significantly more likely to be female, nonwhite, and to exercise currently (all P < 0.05), and were significantly less likely to be a current or former smoker ( P < 0.05). Controlling for demographic and health characteristics, patients self-identified as having COPD only reported significantly worse physical quality of life (adjusted mean 36.69) and health utilities (adjusted mean 0.65) and significantly more absenteeism (adjusted mean 7.08%), presenteeism (adjusted mean 30.73%), overall work impairment (adjusted mean 34.06%), and activity impairment (adjusted mean 46.59%) than the other phenotypes (all P < 0.05).


          These results suggest considerable heterogeneity among different COPD phenotypes with respect to demographics, health characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment patterns, and health outcomes. Research aimed at understanding the differences in patient characteristics and disease presentation of these phenotypes could be used to guide treatment recommendations.

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          Most cited references 4

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          COPD, chronic bronchitis and capacity for day-to-day activities: negative impact of illness on the health-related quality of life.

          The aim of this study was to investigate the negative impact of illness on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic bronchitis. The study population consisted of the participants (N = 8028) of a health examination survey conducted in Finland. The sample in the present substudy was composed of 4718 participants who had complete information about spirometry. Variables age, gender, body mass index (BMI), illnesses, smoking in lifetime, education, FEV1% and incomes were entered in blockwise bivariate regression analysis to examine the relationships between capability for day-to-day activities (physical, psychological and social functioning) of those with COPD. Also, COPD (n = 277) and chronic bronchitis (n = 630) were compared with the general population (n = 3817). Study results showed that women with COPD had worse HRQoL than men, regarding the activities in daily living (ADL; odds ratio [OR] 2.63, 95% confidence interval [Cl] 1.15-5.99), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL; OR 4.23, 95% Cl 1.92-9.29) and exercise (OR 2.66, 95% Cl 1.21-5.84). Compared with the general population, people with chronic bronchitis were associated with poor ADL, IADL and exercise, (OR 1.58, 95% Cl 1.32- 1.92). Those with COPD, had difficulties managing in ADL (OR 4.02, 95% Cl 2.98-5.44), IADL (OR 3.27, 95% Cl 2.43-4.39), exercise (OR 3.35, 95% Cl 2.47 to 4.53). In this representative population-based sample, COPD and chronic bronchitis mean a significantly poor capability in physical functioning. People with chronic bronchitis experienced their daily life to be worse compared with the general population. Reductions in physical functioning for women and especially with COPD were also noteworthy.
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            Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Updated 2009

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              How to Score Version 2 of the SF-12v2 Health Survey (with a supplement documenting version 1)


                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                22 November 2012
                : 7
                : 779-787
                [1 ]Global Health Outcomes, Merck and Co, Inc, West Point, PA
                [2 ]Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, Princeton, NJ
                [3 ]Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Marco daCosta DiBonaventura, Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, 11 Madison Avenue, 12th Floor, New York, NY 10010, USA, Tel +1 212 706 3988, Fax +1 212 647 7659, Email marco.dibonaventura@
                © 2012 Allen-Ramey et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited

                Original Research


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