“Xia Bo” is a type of kiln furniture for ceramic production that becomes solid waste after damage during the firing process. However, it has traditionally been reused as a building material in China’s kiln-producing areas. With technological changes in kilns in recent years, Xia Bo is no longer necessary as kiln furniture for firing ceramics. However, as a low-tech and ecologically friendly construction material, it is overlooked as a suitable material. Traditional Xia Bo wall buildings are increasingly being left unused or even destroyed. This study examined the town of Pengcheng in the Cizhou kiln cultural heritage area. The main features and shapes of Xia Bo used in existing buildings were analyzed, and the typical application mode and construction technology for the “horizontal placement method” and the “vertical placement method” of the Xia Bo used in building walls were summarized. The thermal insulation performance of different types of Xia Bo wall was also examined, especially their thermal performance was compared with that of traditional brick wall buildings in indoor thermal environments. This study emphasizes and recognizes the ecological and economic value of reusing ceramic industrial waste as building materials to ensure that this technology can be protected and adopted in contemporary architecture.