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      COVID-19 quarantine: Post-traumatic stress symptomatology among Lebanese citizens

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          In the light of the global spread of the novel Coronavirus known as COVID-19 and in the absence of an approved treatment and vaccination, Lebanon has taken national measures, among which was home quarantine of the general public in an attempt to flatten the epidemic curve and avoid flooding the health care system.


          This study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) during the times of COVID-19 quarantine among Lebanese citizens.


          This quantitative cross-sectional study recruited 950 civilians and is aimed at measuring the prevalence of PTSS among the Lebanese citizens at an interval of 2 weeks and 1 month of COVID-19 quarantine.


          The results have shown that quarantine in Lebanon has started to give rise to Post-traumatic Stress Disorder symptomatology during the second week which was worsened in the fourth week of COVID-19 quarantine.


          COVID-19 quarantine has influenced the psychology of Lebanese citizens and might have persistent effects after the end of this phase which is recommended to be explored.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Confirmatory factor analyses of posttraumatic stress symptoms in deployed and nondeployed veterans of the Gulf War.

          Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare 6 models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, ranging from 1 to 4 factors, in a sample of 3,695 deployed Gulf War veterans (N = 1,896) and nondeployed controls (N = 1,799). The 4 correlated factors-intrusions, avoidance, hyperarousal, and dysphoria-provided the best fit. The dysphoria factor combined traditional markers of numbing and hyperarousal. Model superiority was cross-validated in multiple subsamples, including a subset of deployed participants who were exposed to traumatic combat stressors. Moreover, convergent and discriminant validity correlations suggested that intrusions may be relatively specific to PTSD, whereas dysphoria may represent a nonspecific component of many disorders. Results are discussed in the context of hierarchical models of anxiety and depression.
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            System effectiveness of detection, brief intervention and refer to treatment for the people with post-traumatic emotional distress by MERS: a case report of community-based proactive intervention in South Korea

            Background Korea has experienced diverse kind of disasters these days. Among them the 2015 middle eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak imposed great psychological stress on almost all Korean citizens. Following the MERS outbreak, government is reviewing overall infectious disease management system and prioritizing the establishment of mental health service systems for infectious disease. This study makes suggestions for implementing disaster-related mental health service systems by analyzing the example of Gyeonggi Province, which proactively intervened with residents’ psychological problems caused by the large-scale outbreak of an infectious disease. Case description Mental health service system for MERS victims had the following two parts: a mental health service for people who had been placed in quarantine and a service provided to families of patients who had died or recovered patients. The government of Gyeonggi province, public health centers, regional and local Community Mental Health Centers and the National Center for Crisis Mental Health Management participated in this service system. Among 1221 Gyeonggi people placed in quarantine and who experienced psychological and emotional difficulties, 350 required continuing services; 124 of this group received continuing services. That is, 35 % of people who required psychological intervention received contact from service providers and received the required services. Conclusions This study reflects a proactive monitoring system for thousands of people placed under quarantine for the first time in Korea. It is significant that the service utilization rate by a proactive manner, that is the professionals administering it actively approached and contacted people with problems rather than passively providing information was much higher than other general mental health situation in Korea. The core value of public mental health services is adequate public accessibility; it is therefore essential for governments to strengthen their professional competence and establish effective systems. These criteria should also be applied to psychological problems caused by disastrous infectious disease outbreaks.
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              Examining a comprehensive model of disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder in systematically studied survivors of 10 disasters.

              Using a comprehensive disaster model, we examined predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combined data from 10 different disasters. The combined sample included data from 811 directly exposed survivors of 10 disasters between 1987 and 1995. We used consistent methods across all 10 disaster samples, including full diagnostic assessment. In multivariate analyses, predictors of PTSD were female gender, younger age, Hispanic ethnicity, less education, ever-married status, predisaster psychopathology, disaster injury, and witnessing injury or death; exposure through death or injury to friends or family members and witnessing the disaster aftermath did not confer additional PTSD risk. Intentionally caused disasters associated with PTSD in bivariate analysis did not independently predict PTSD in multivariate analysis. Avoidance and numbing symptoms represented a PTSD marker. Despite confirming some previous research findings, we found no associations between PTSD and disaster typology. Prospective research is needed to determine whether early avoidance and numbing symptoms identify individuals likely to develop PTSD later. Our findings may help identify at-risk populations for treatment research.

                Author and article information

                Int J Soc Psychiatry
                Int J Soc Psychiatry
                The International Journal of Social Psychiatry
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                3 June 2020
                [1 ]Nursing Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon
                [2 ]Faculty of Public Health IV, Lebanese University, Zahle, Lebanon
                [3 ]Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences IV, Lebanese University, Zahle, Lebanon
                [4 ]Department of Biomedical Sciences, Lebanese International University, Beirut, Lebanon
                Author notes
                Mirna Fawaz, Nursing Department, Adult Health Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Beirut Arab University, Tareek Al Jadida, Afeef Al Tiba, Beirut 1105, Lebanon. Email: mirna.fawaz@ 123456bau.edu.lb
                © The Author(s) 2020

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                Original Article
                Custom metadata

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry

                coronavirus, ptss, covid-19, pandemic, quarantine


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