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      Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species

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          Abstract

          The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for the demarcation of different groups of Burkholderia spp. and they also offer novel and useful targets for the development of diagnostic assays for the clinically important members of the BCC or the pseudomallei groups. Based upon the results of phylogenetic analyses, the identified CSIs and the pathogenicity profile of Burkholderia species, we are proposing a division of the genus Burkholderia into two genera. In this new proposal, the emended genus Burkholderia will correspond to the Clade I and it will contain only the clinically relevant and phytopathogenic Burkholderia species. All other Burkholderia spp., which are primarily environmental, will be transferred to a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov.

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          The impact of next-generation sequencing technology on genetics.

          If one accepts that the fundamental pursuit of genetics is to determine the genotypes that explain phenotypes, the meteoric increase of DNA sequence information applied toward that pursuit has nowhere to go but up. The recent introduction of instruments capable of producing millions of DNA sequence reads in a single run is rapidly changing the landscape of genetics, providing the ability to answer questions with heretofore unimaginable speed. These technologies will provide an inexpensive, genome-wide sequence readout as an endpoint to applications ranging from chromatin immunoprecipitation, mutation mapping and polymorphism discovery to noncoding RNA discovery. Here I survey next-generation sequencing technologies and consider how they can provide a more complete picture of how the genome shapes the organism.
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            The All-Species Living Tree project: a 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic tree of all sequenced type strains.

            The signing authors together with the journal Systematic and Applied Microbiology (SAM) have started an ambitious project that has been conceived to provide a useful tool especially for the scientific microbial taxonomist community. The aim of what we have called "The All-Species Living Tree" is to reconstruct a single 16S rRNA tree harboring all sequenced type strains of the hitherto classified species of Archaea and Bacteria. This tree is to be regularly updated by adding the species with validly published names that appear monthly in the Validation and Notification lists of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. For this purpose, the SAM executive editors, together with the responsible teams of the ARB, SILVA, and LPSN projects (www.arb-home.de, www.arb-silva.de, and www.bacterio.cict.fr, respectively), have prepared a 16S rRNA database containing over 6700 sequences, each of which represents a single type strain of a classified species up to 31 December 2007. The selection of sequences had to be undertaken manually due to a high error rate in the names and information fields provided for the publicly deposited entries. In addition, from among the often occurring multiple entries for a single type strain, the best-quality sequence was selected for the project. The living tree database that SAM now provides contains corrected entries and the best-quality sequences with a manually checked alignment. The tree reconstruction has been performed by using the maximum likelihood algorithm RAxML. The tree provided in the first release is a result of the calculation of a single dataset containing 9975 single entries, 6728 corresponding to type strain gene sequences, as well as 3247 additional high-fquality sequences to give robustness to the reconstruction. Trees are dynamic structures that change on the basis of the quality and availability of the data used for their calculation. Therefore, the addition of new type strain sequences in further subsequent releases may help to resolve certain branching orders that appear ambiguous in this first release. On the web sites: www.elsevier.de/syapm and www.arb-silva.de/living-tree, the All-Species Living Tree team will release a regularly updated database compatible with the ARB software environment containing the whole 16S rRNA dataset used to reconstruct "The All-Species Living Tree". As a result, the latest reconstructed phylogeny will be provided. In addition to the ARB file, a readable multi-FASTA universal sequence editor file with the complete alignment will be provided for those not using ARB. There is also a complete set of supplementary tables and figures illustrating the selection procedure and its outcome. It is expected that the All-Species Living Tree will help to improve future classification efforts by simplifying the selection of the correct type strain sequences. For queries, information updates, remarks on the dataset or tree reconstructions shown, a contact email address has been created (living-tree@arb-silva.de). This provides an entry point for anyone from the scientific community to provide additional input for the construction and improvement of the first tree compiling all sequenced type strains of all prokaryotic species for which names had been validly published.
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              Prokaryotic evolution in light of gene transfer.

              Accumulating prokaryotic gene and genome sequences reveal that the exchange of genetic information through both homology-dependent recombination and horizontal (lateral) gene transfer (HGT) is far more important, in quantity and quality, than hitherto imagined. The traditional view, that prokaryotic evolution can be understood primarily in terms of clonal divergence and periodic selection, must be augmented to embrace gene exchange as a creative force, itself responsible for much of the pattern of similarities and differences we see between prokaryotic microbes. Rather than replacing periodic selection on genetic diversity, gene loss, and other chromosomal alterations as important players in adaptive evolution, gene exchange acts in concert with these processes to provide a rich explanatory paradigm-some of whose implications we explore here. In particular, we discuss (1) the role of recombination and HGT in giving phenotypic "coherence" to prokaryotic taxa at all levels of inclusiveness, (2) the implications of these processes for the reconstruction and meaning of "phylogeny," and (3) new views of prokaryotic adaptation and diversification based on gene acquisition and exchange.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Genet
                Front Genet
                Front. Genet.
                Frontiers in Genetics
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-8021
                24 October 2014
                19 December 2014
                2014
                : 5
                Affiliations
                Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Health Sciences Center, McMaster University Hamilton, ON, Canada
                Author notes

                Edited by: Scott Norman Peterson, Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, USA

                Reviewed by: Loren John Hauser, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA; William Charles Nierman, J. Craig Venter Institute, USA

                *Correspondence: Radhey S. Gupta, Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Health Sciences Center, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada e-mail: gupta@ 123456mcmaster.ca

                This article was submitted to Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Genetics.

                Article
                10.3389/fgene.2014.00429
                4271702
                Copyright © 2014 Sawana, Adeolu and Gupta.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 125, Pages: 22, Words: 12281
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Original Research Article

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