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      Remimazolam Anesthesia for Thyroid Surgery


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          Critical upper airway obstruction, hematoma formation, and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy have been reported as postoperative complications of thyroid surgery. Although remimazolam may reduce the risk of these complications, the efficacy of flumazenil with remimazolam has not been reported. We present the successful anesthesia management of thyroid surgery using remimazolam and flumazenil. Case Presentation. A 72-year-old woman was diagnosed with a goiter and scheduled for a partial thyroidectomy under general anesthesia. We used remimazolam for induction and maintenance using a neural integrity monitor, electromyogram, and endotracheal tube under the bispectral index monitor. At the end of the surgery, spontaneous respiration was confirmed after the intravenous administration of sugammadex, and the patient was extubated under mild sedation. In the operating room, we administered flumazenil intravenously to confirm recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and active postoperative hemorrhage. The patient was confirmed to have no recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy under full wakefulness but developed active postoperative hemorrhage with normal blood pressure. The patient required reoperation and was reintubated under intravenous administration of propofol. The anesthesia was maintained using 5% of desflurane, and the patient was extubated without any postoperative problems. The anesthesia was then terminated. The patient had no recall of the procedure.


          Maintenance of general anesthesia using remimazolam allowed the use of a neurostimulator with minimal muscle-relaxant effects, and extubation under sedation reduced the risk of abrupt and unexpected changes in blood pressure, body movement, and coughing. Furthermore, after extubation, the patient was rendered fully awake using flumazenil to confirm the presence of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and active postoperative hemorrhage. In addition, the patient had no memory of the reoperation, suggesting that the anterograde amnesic effect of remimazolam had a favorable psychological outcome associated with the reoperation. We safely managed thyroid surgery using remimazolam and flumazenil.

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          Electrophysiologic recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: international standards guideline statement.

          Intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) during thyroid and parathyroid surgery has gained widespread acceptance as an adjunct to the gold standard of visual nerve identification. Despite the increasing use of IONM, review of the literature and clinical experience confirms there is little uniformity in application of and results from nerve monitoring across different centers. We provide a review of the literature and cumulative experience of the multidisciplinary International Neural Monitoring Study Group with IONM spanning nearly 15 years. The study group focused its initial work on formulation of standards in IONM as it relates to important areas: 1) standards of equipment setup/endotracheal tube placement and 2) standards of loss of signal evaluation/intraoperative problem-solving algorithm. The use of standardized methods and reporting will provide greater uniformity in application of IONM. In addition, this report clarifies the limitations of IONM and helps identify areas where additional research is necessary. This guideline is, at its forefront, quality driven; it is intended to improve the quality of neural monitoring, to translate the best available evidence into clinical practice to promote best practices. We hope this work will minimize inappropriate variations in monitoring rather than to dictate practice options.
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            CNS 7056: a novel ultra-short-acting Benzodiazepine.

            A new benzodiazepine derivative, CNS 7056, has been developed to permit a superior sedative profile to current agents, i.e., more predictable fast onset, short duration of sedative action, and rapid recovery profile. This goal has been achieved by rendering the compound susceptible to metabolism via esterases. The authors now report on the profile of CNS 7056 in vitro and in vivo. The affinity of CNS 7056 and its carboxylic acid metabolite, CNS 7054, for benzodiazepine receptors and their selectivity profiles were evaluated using radioligand binding. The activity of CNS 7056 and midazolam at subtypes (alpha1beta2gamma2, alpha2beta2gamma2, alpha3beta2gamma2, alpha5beta2gamma2) of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor was evaluated using the whole cell patch clamp technique. The activity of CNS 7056 at brain benzodiazepine receptors in vivo was measured in rats using extracellular electrophysiology in the substantia nigra pars reticulata. The sedative profile was measured in rodents using the loss of righting reflex test. CNS 7056 bound to brain benzodiazepine sites with high affinity. The carboxylic acid metabolite, CNS 7054, showed around 300 times lower affinity. CNS 7056 and CNS 7054 (10 mum) showed no affinity for a range of other receptors. CNS 7056 enhanced GABA currents in cells stably transfected with subtypes of the GABAA receptor. CNS 7056, like midazolam and other classic benzodiazepines, did not show clear selectivity between subtypes of the GABAA receptor. CNS 7056 (intravenous) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of substantia nigra pars reticulata neuronal firing and recovery to baseline firing rates was reached rapidly. CNS 7056 (intravenous) induced loss of the righting reflex in rodents. The duration of loss of righting reflex was short (< 10 min) and was inhibited by pretreatment with flumazenil. CNS 7065 is a high-affinity and selective ligand for the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA receptor. CNS 7056 does not show selectivity between GABAA receptor subtypes. CNS 7056 is a potent sedative in rodents with a short duration of action. Inhibition of substantia nigra pars reticulata firing and the inhibition of the effects of CNS 7056 by flumazenil show that it acts at the brain benzodiazepine receptor.
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              Remimazolam besilate, a benzodiazepine, has been approved for general anesthesia!!


                Author and article information

                Case Rep Anesthesiol
                Case Rep Anesthesiol
                Case Reports in Anesthesiology
                15 May 2023
                : 2023
                : 2352693
                Department of Anesthesiology, Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, 35-1, Chigasaki-Chuo, Tsuzuki-Ku, Yokohama-Shi, Kanagawa-Ken 224-8503, Japan
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Benjamin Tan

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Sae Nakagawa et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 19 December 2022
                : 13 March 2023
                : 6 May 2023
                Case Report

                Anesthesiology & Pain management
                Anesthesiology & Pain management


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