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      STIM1, an essential and conserved component of store-operated Ca 2 + channel function

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          Abstract

          Store-operated Ca 2+ (SOC) channels regulate many cellular processes, but the underlying molecular components are not well defined. Using an RNA interference (RNAi)-based screen to identify genes that alter thapsigargin (TG)-dependent Ca 2+ entry, we discovered a required and conserved role of Stim in SOC influx. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Stim in Drosophila S2 cells significantly reduced TG-dependent Ca 2+ entry. Patch-clamp recording revealed nearly complete suppression of the Drosophila Ca 2+ release-activated Ca 2+ (CRAC) current that has biophysical characteristics similar to CRAC current in human T cells. Similarly, knockdown of the human homologue STIM1 significantly reduced CRAC channel activity in Jurkat T cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of STIM1 inhibited TG- or agonist-dependent Ca 2+ entry in HEK293 or SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, overexpression of STIM1 in HEK293 cells modestly enhanced TG-induced Ca 2+ entry. We propose that STIM1, a ubiquitously expressed protein that is conserved from Drosophila to mammalian cells, plays an essential role in SOC influx and may be a common component of SOC and CRAC channels.

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          RADIOAUTOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF CHOLINE INCORPORATION INTO PERIPHERAL NERVE MYELIN

          This radioautographic study was designed to localize the cytological sites involved in the incorporation of a lipid precursor into the myelin and the myelin-related cell of the peripheral nervous system. Both myelinating and fully myelinated cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia were exposed to a 30-min pulse of tritiated choline and either fixed immediately or allowed 6 or 48 hr of chase incubation before fixation. After Epon embedding, light and electron microscopic radioautograms were prepared with Ilford L-4 emulsion. Analysis of the pattern of choline incorporation into myelinating cultures indicated that radioactivity appeared all along the length of the internode, without there being a preferential site of initial incorporation. Light microscopic radioautograms of cultures at varying states of maturity were compared in order to determine the relative degree of myelin labeling. This analysis indicated that the myelin-Schwann cell unit in the fully myelinated cultures incorporated choline as actively as did this unit in the myelinating cultures. Because of technical difficulties, it was not possible to determine the precise localization of the incorporated radioactivity within the compact myelin. These data are related to recent biochemical studies indicating that the mature myelin of the central nervous system does incorporate a significant amount of lipid precursor under the appropriate experimental conditions. These observations support the concept that a significant amount of myelin-related metabolic activity occurs in mature tissue; this activity is considered part of an essential and continuous process of myelin maintenance and repair.
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            TRP channels as cellular sensors.

            TRP channels are the vanguard of our sensory systems, responding to temperature, touch, pain, osmolarity, pheromones, taste and other stimuli. But their role is much broader than classical sensory transduction. They are an ancient sensory apparatus for the cell, not just the multicellular organism, and they have been adapted to respond to all manner of stimuli, from both within and outside the cell.
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              Use of double-stranded RNA interference in Drosophila cell lines to dissect signal transduction pathways.

              We demonstrate the efficacy of double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) of gene expression in generating "knock-out" phenotypes for specific proteins in several Drosophila cell lines. We prove the applicability of this technique for studying signaling cascades by dissecting the well-characterized insulin signal transduction pathway. Specifically, we demonstrate that inhibiting the expression of the DSOR1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, MAPKK) prevents the activation of the downstream ERK-A (MAPK). In contrast, blocking ERK-A expression results in increased activation of DSOR1. We also show that Drosophila AKT (DAKT) activation depends on the insulin receptor substrate, CHICO (IRS1-4). Finally, we demonstrate that blocking the expression of Drosophila PTEN results in the activation of DAKT. In all cases, the interference of the biochemical cascade by RNAi is consistent with the known steps in the pathway. We extend this powerful technique to study two proteins, DSH3PX1 and Drosophila ACK (DACK). DSH3PX1 is an SH3, phox homology domain-containing protein, and DACK is homologous to the mammalian activated Cdc42 tyrosine kinase, ACK. Using RNAi, we demonstrate that DACK is upstream of DSH3PX1 phosphorylation, making DSH3PX1 an identified downstream target/substrate of ACK-like tyrosine kinases. These experiments highlight the usefulness of RNAi in dissecting complex biochemical signaling cascades and provide a highly effective method for determining the function of the identified genes arising from the Drosophila genome sequencing project.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                9 May 2005
                : 169
                : 3
                : 435-445
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Torrey Pines Therapeutics, Inc., La Jolla, CA 92037
                [2 ]Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Center for Immunology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697
                Author notes

                Correspondence to K.A. Stauderman: kstauderman@ 123456torreypinestherapeutics.com ; or M.D. Cahalan: mcahalan@ 123456uci.edu

                Article
                200502019
                10.1083/jcb.200502019
                2171946
                15866891
                3674744b-ec1f-4012-8ed1-6af8d6d5b103
                Copyright © 2005, The Rockefeller University Press
                History
                : 4 February 2005
                : 23 March 2005
                Categories
                Research Articles
                Article

                Cell biology
                Cell biology

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