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      Efficacy of sunscreen with photolyase or regular sunscreen associated with topical antioxidants in treating advanced photodamage and cutaneous field cancerization: a randomized clinical trial ⋆⋆

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          Abstract

          Background

          Several treatments are available for skin with advanced photodamage, which is characterized by the presence of actinic keratoses (AK).

          Objectives

          Evaluate the efficacy of using sunscreen with photolyase compared to regular sunscreen, as well as to compare the combination of a topical formulation of antioxidants versus placebo in the treatment of advanced photodamage.

          Methods

          This was a randomized, double-blind, factorial clinical trial. Participants with AKs on their forearms were randomized to apply regular sunscreen (SC) or sunscreen with photolyase (SC+P) on both forearms during the day. One of the forearms in each group was randomized again to receive topical antioxidants (AOx), and the other forearm received a placebo cream (both for night application). The four groups were SC/AOx, SC/placebo, SC+P/AOx, and SC+P/placebo. The duration of treatment was 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were total AK clearance, decrease in Forearm Photoaging Scale (FPS), and AK severity scores. Secondary outcomes were reduction in AK count, partial clearance rate, and safety.

          Results

          Forty participants (80 forearms) were included. All groups showed significant improvement in outcomes at week eight. There were no significant differences between SC and SC+P for either outcome. AOx led to a significant reduction in AK count (22%; p < 0.05). Partial clearance was obtained in 18 (47.4%) forearms treated with AOx and in 9 (23.7%) treated with placebo (p < 0.05). All groups reduced the FPS score, without significant differences among them.

          Conclusions

          There is no difference in the treatment of advanced photodamage skin when comparing the use of sunscreen with photolyase and regular sunscreen, and topical antioxidants were more efficient in reducing AK count than placebo.

          Study limitations

          Short interval of follow-up and absence of re-evaluation in the absence of treatment were limitations of the present study.

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          Most cited references28

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          Reduction of solar keratoses by regular sunscreen use.

          The incidence of and mortality from skin cancer are increasing in many countries. In view of the added concern about ozone depletion, many organizations are promoting the regular use of sunscreens to prevent skin cancer, despite the absence of evidence that these products have this effect. Solar (actinic) keratosis is a precursor of squamous-cell carcinoma of the skin. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of the effect on solar keratoses of daily use of a broad-spectrum sunscreen cream with a sun-protection factor of 17 in 588 people 40 years of age or older in Australia during one summer (September 1991 to March 1992). The subjects applied either a sunscreen cream or the base cream minus the active ingredients of the sunscreen to the head, neck, forearms, and hands. The mean number of solar keratoses increased by 1.0 per subject in the base-cream group and decreased by 0.6 in the sunscreen group (difference, 1.53; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.81 to 2.25). The sunscreen group had fewer new lesions (rate ratio, 0.62; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.71) and more remissions (odds ratio, 1.53; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.29 to 1.80) than the base-cream group. There was a dose-response relation: the amount of sunscreen cream used was related to both the development of new lesions and the remission of existing ones. Regular use of sunscreens prevents the development of solar keratoses and, by implication, possibly reduces the risk of skin cancer in the long-term.
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            Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins C and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin.

            Ferulic acid is a potent ubiquitous plant antioxidant. Its incorporation into a topical solution of 15%l-ascorbic acid and 1%alpha-tocopherol improved chemical stability of the vitamins (C+E) and doubled photoprotection to solar-simulated irradiation of skin from 4-fold to approximately 8-fold as measured by both erythema and sunburn cell formation. Inhibition of apoptosis was associated with reduced induction of caspase-3 and caspase-7. This antioxidant formulation efficiently reduced thymine dimer formation. This combination of pure natural low molecular weight antioxidants provides meaningful synergistic protection against oxidative stress in skin and should be useful for protection against photoaging and skin cancer.
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              • Article: not found

              Molecular basis of sun-induced premature skin ageing and retinoid antagonism.

              Damage to skin collagen and elastin (extracellular matrix) is the hallmark of long-term exposure to solar ultraviolet irradiation, and is believed to be responsible for the wrinkled appearance of sun-exposed skin. We report here that matrix-degrading metalloproteinase messenger RNAs, proteins and activities are induced in human skin in vivo within hours of exposure to ultraviolet-B irradiation (UVB). Induction of metalloproteinase proteins and activities occurred at UVB doses well below those that cause skin reddening. Within minutes, low-dose UVB upregulated the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappa B, which are known to be stimulators of metalloproteinase genes. All-trans retinoic acid, which transrepresses AP-1 (ref. 8), applied before irradiation with UVB, substantially reduced AP-1 and metalloproteinase induction. We propose that elevated metalloproteinases, resulting from activation of AP-1 and NF-kappa B by low-dose solar irradiation, degrade collagen and elastin in skin. Such damage, if imperfectly repaired, would result in solar scars, which through accumulation from a lifetime of repeated low-dose sunlight exposure could cause premature skin ageing (photoageing).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                An Bras Dermatol
                An Bras Dermatol
                Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
                Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia
                0365-0596
                1806-4841
                14 January 2022
                Mar-Apr 2022
                14 January 2022
                : 97
                : 2
                : 157-165
                Affiliations
                [0005]Department of Infectious Diseases, Dermatology, Imaging Diagnosis and Radiotherapy, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculty of Medicine, Botucatu, SP, Brazil
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. brunoalvares_91@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                S0365-0596(21)00306-8
                10.1016/j.abd.2021.06.005
                9073224
                35039206
                367632bf-73a6-4fc6-b24f-d9bc3e3df00b
                © 2021 Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Original Article

                actinic keratosis,antioxidants,deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase,skin aging,skin neoplasms,sunscreening agents

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