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      Composition and antioxidative activities of supercritical CO2-extracted oils from seeds and soft parts of northern berries

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      Food Research International

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 40

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          Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries.

          The antioxidant activity of phenolics in fruits of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cv. Sierra), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon cv. Ben Lear), wild chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea cv. Amberland) was determined in this study. The phenolic constituents and contents among the different berries varied considerably. Anthocyanins were found to be the main components in all these berries. Chlorogenic acid in blueberry, quercetin glycosides in cranberry and lingonberry, and caffeic acid and its derivative in chokeberry were also present in relatively high concentrations. Chlorogenic acid, peonidin 3-galactoside, cyanidin 3-galactoside, and cyanidin 3-galactoside were the most important antioxidants in blueberry, cranberry, wild chokeberry, and lingonberry, respectively. The contribution of individual phenolics to the total antioxidant capacity was generally dependent on their structure and content in the berries. Phenolics such as quercetin and cyanidin, with 3',4'-dihydroxy substituents in the B ring and conjugation between the A and B rings, had highly effective radical scavenging structures in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries. Phenolic acids such as caffeic acid also showed high antioxidant activity, probably due to its dihydroxylation in the 3,4 positions as hydrogen donors.
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            Is Open Access

            Human requirement for N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

            The diet of our ancestors was less dense in calories, being higher in fiber, rich in fruits, vegetables, lean meat, and fish. As a result, the diet was lower in total fat and saturated fat, but contained equal amounts of n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids. Linoleic acid (LA) is the major n-6 fatty acid, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the major n-3 fatty acid. In the body, LA is metabolized to arachidonic acid (AA), and ALA is metabolized to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The ratio of n-6 to n-3 essential fatty acids was 1 to 2:1 with higher levels of the longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as EPA, DHA, and AA, than today's diet. Today this ratio is about 10 to 1:20 to 25 to 1, indicating that Western diets are deficient in n-3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. The n-3 and n-6 EPA are not interconvertible in the human body and are important components of practically all cell membranes. The N-6 and n-3 fatty acids influence eicosanoid metabolism, gene expression, and intercellular cell-to-cell communication. The PUFA composition of cell membranes is, to a great extent, dependent on dietary intake. Therefore, appropriate amounts of dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids need to be considered in making dietary recommendations. These two classes of PUFA should be distinguished because they are metabolically and functionally distinct and have opposing physiological functions; their balance is important for homeostasis and normal development. Studies with nonhuman primates and human newborns indicate that DHA is essential for the normal functional development of the retina and brain, particularly in premature infants. A balanced n-6/n-3 ratio in the diet is essential for normal growth and development and should lead to decreases in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases and improve mental health. Although a recommended dietary allowance for essential fatty acids does not exist, an adequate intake (AI) has been estimated for n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids by an international scientific working group. For Western societies, it will be necessary to decrease the intake of n-6 fatty acids and increase the intake of n-3 fatty acids. The food industry is already taking steps to return n-3 essential fatty acids to the food supply by enriching various foods with n-3 fatty acids. To obtain the recommended AI, it will be necessary to consider the issues involved in enriching the food supply with n-3 PUFA in terms of dosage, safety, and sources of n-3 fatty acids.
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              The basal layer in human squamous tumors harbors more UVA than UVB fingerprint mutations: a role for UVA in human skin carcinogenesis.

              We hypothesized that a substantial portion of the mutagenic alterations produced in the basal layer of human skin by sunlight are induced by wavelengths in the UVA range. Using laser capture microdissection we examined separately basal and suprabasal keratinocytes from human skin squamous cell carcinomas and premalignant solar keratosis for both UVA- and UVB-induced adduct formation and signature mutations. We found that UVA fingerprint mutations were detectable in human skin squamous cell carcinomas and solar keratosis, mostly in the basal germinative layer, which contrasted with a predominantly suprabasal localization of UVB fingerprint mutations in these lesions. The epidermal layer bias was confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses with a superficial localization of cyclobutane thymine dimers contrasting with the localization of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanine adducts to the basal epithelial layers. If unrepaired, these adducts may lead to fixed genomic mutations. The basal location of UVA-rather than UVB-induced DNA damage suggests that longer-wavelength UVR is an important carcinogen in the stem cell compartment of the skin. Given the traditional emphasis on UVB, these results may have profound implications for future public health initiatives for skin cancer prevention.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Food Research International
                Food Research International
                Elsevier BV
                09639969
                August 2011
                August 2011
                : 44
                : 7
                : 2009-2017
                Article
                10.1016/j.foodres.2011.02.025
                © 2011

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