A low-cost approach for enhancing mesophilic (37 °C) anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste using a low-temperature (37 °C) pretreatment with different mineral wastes (MW) was investigated. A higher and stable methane production rate, in comparison to MW-free controls, was achieved for 80 days at organic loading rates of 1-2 g VS/L·d, using a feed substrate pretreated with incinerator bottom ash (IBA). The boiler ash and cement-based waste pretreatments also produced high methane production rates but with some process instability. In contrast, an incinerator fly ash pretreatment showed a progressive decrease in methane production rates and poor process stability, leading to reactor failure after 40 days. To avoid process instability and/or reactor failure, two metrics had to be met: (a) a methanogenesis to fermentation ratio higher than 0.6 and (b) a cell-specific methanogenic activity to cell-specific fermentation activity ratio of >1000. The prevalence of Methanofastidiosum together with a mixed community of acetoclastic (Methanosaeta) and hydrogenotrophic (Methanobacterium) methanogens in the stable IBA treatment indicated the importance of Methanofastidiosum as a potential indicator of a healthy and stable reactor.