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      Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated With Herds With an Increased Duration of Bovine Tuberculosis Breakdowns in Castilla y Leon, Spain (2010–2017)

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          Abstract

          The persistence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in certain cattle herds is a major concern in countries pursuing disease eradication worldwide. The chronic nature of the disease, the lack of performance of diagnostic tools, and the presence of wildlife reservoirs may lead infected herds to require longer periods to achieve the officially tuberculosis-free (OTF) status. Here, we evaluated the impact of farm and breakdown characteristics on the probability of disease persistence in infected farms in Castilla y Leon, a bTB-endemic region of Spain, using survival and logistic regression models. Data from bTB breakdowns occurring in 3,550 bTB-positive herds detected in 2010–2017 were analyzed. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was fitted using time to recover OTF status as the response variable, and a multivariable logistic regression model using the chronic status (yes/no) for herds experiencing particularly long breakdowns as the outcome variable was also used. Both analyses revealed that county-level bTB herd prevalence, herd size, number of incoming animals in the previous 3 years, number of skin test reactors in the disclosing test, and number of days between the disclosing and follow-up tests were associated with increased breakdown duration. Production type was not consistently associated with chronic infection, suggesting that once infected, it is not a significant predictor of outbreak duration beyond the initial stages of the breakdown. Province-level location and number of animals that are bacteriology-positive also affected significantly the expected herd breakdown duration, but their effect became less significant over time. Risk factors identified in this study may help to identify herds more prone to suffer chronic bTB infection that may require additional control measures early on in a breakdown.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Cattle movements and bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

          For 20 years, bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been spreading in Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland) and is now endemic in the southwest and parts of central England and in southwest Wales, and occurs sporadically elsewhere. Although its transmission pathways remain poorly understood, the disease's distribution was previously modelled statistically by using environmental variables and measures of their seasonality. Movements of infected animals have long been considered a critical factor in the spread of livestock diseases, as reflected in strict import/export regulations, the extensive movement restrictions imposed during the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak, the tracing procedures after a new case of BTB has been confirmed and the Government's recently published strategic framework for the sustainable control on BTB. Since January 2001 it has been mandatory for stock-keepers in Great Britain to notify the British Cattle Movement Service of all cattle births, movements and deaths. Here we show that movements as recorded in the Cattle Tracing System data archive, and particularly those from areas where BTB is reported, consistently outperform environmental, topographic and other anthropogenic variables as the main predictor of disease occurrence. Simulation distribution models for 2002 and 2003, incorporating all predictor categories, are presented and used to project distributions for 2004 and 2005.
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            Regression Models and Life-Tables

             D R Cox (1972)
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              Mycobacterium bovis infection and tuberculosis in cattle.

              This review considers the possible events that can occur when cattle are exposed to Mycobacterium bovis and, where appropriate, draws on principles accepted for tuberculosis infection in humans and laboratory animal models. Consideration is given to the many complex factors which influence the outcome of challenge with tubercle bacilli. These include features inherent to the mycobacterium, the host and the environment. It is apparent that clinical disease probably occurs only in a relatively small, but undetermined, proportion of cattle that are exposed to Al. bovis. The majority of animals may clear infection or control the bacilli, possibly in a condition of latency. It is concluded that a better understanding of the dynamics of the events following M. bovis exposure and subsequent infection in cattle would be of significant benefit in developing new tools appropriate for disease control and to designing optimal approaches for their application.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Vet Sci
                Front Vet Sci
                Front. Vet. Sci.
                Frontiers in Veterinary Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2297-1769
                25 September 2020
                2020
                : 7
                Affiliations
                1VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre, Universidad Complutense de Madrid , Madrid, Spain
                2MAEVA SERVET, S.L. , Madrid, Spain
                3Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid , Madrid, Spain
                4Dirección General de Producción Agropecuaria e Infraestructuras Agrarias, Consejería de Agricultura y Ganadería de la Junta de Castilla y León , Valladolid, Spain
                5Subdirección General de Sanidad e Higiene Animal y Trazabilidad, Dirección General de la Producción Agraria, Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación , Madrid, Spain
                Author notes

                Edited by: Andrew William Byrne, Department of Agriculture Food and the Marine, Ireland

                Reviewed by: Georgina Milne, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), United Kingdom; Flavie Vial, Animal and Plant Health Agency, United Kingdom

                *Correspondence: Julio Alvarez jalvarez@ 123456visavet.ucm.es

                This article was submitted to Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science

                Article
                10.3389/fvets.2020.545328
                7546324
                Copyright © 2020 Pozo, Romero, Bezos, Grau, Nacar, Saez, Minguez and Alvarez.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 1, References: 63, Pages: 14, Words: 10993
                Funding
                Funded by: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades 10.13039/100014440
                Funded by: Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad, Gobierno de España 10.13039/501100010198
                Categories
                Veterinary Science
                Original Research

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