0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Association between Total and Individual PCB Congener Levels in Maternal Serum and Birth Weight of Newborns: Results from the Chiba Study of Mother and Child Health Using Weighted Quantile Sum Regression

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy is associated with a low birth weight; however, the congener-specific effects of PCB congeners are not well defined. In this study, we used maternal serum samples from the Chiba Study of Mother and Child Health (C-MACH) cohort, collected at 32 weeks of gestational age, to analyze the effects of PCB congener exposure on birth weight by examining the relationship between newborn birth weight and individual PCB congener levels in maternal serum (n = 291). The median total PCB level in the serum of mothers of male and female newborns at approximately 32 weeks of gestation was 39 and 37 ng g−1 lipid wt, respectively. The effect of the total PCB levels and the effects of PCB congener mixtures were analyzed using a linear regression model and a generalized weighted quantile sum regression model (gWQS). The birth weight of newborns was significantly associated with maternal exposure to PCB mixtures in the gWQS model. The results suggest that exposure to PCB mixtures results in low newborn birth weight. However, specific impacts of individual PCB congeners could not be related to newborn birth weight.

          Related collections

          Most cited references33

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          mice: Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations inR

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and Mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.

            In June 2005, a World Health Organization (WHO)-International Programme on Chemical Safety expert meeting was held in Geneva during which the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for dioxin-like compounds, including some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were reevaluated. For this reevaluation process, the refined TEF database recently published by Haws et al. (2006, Toxicol. Sci. 89, 4-30) was used as a starting point. Decisions about a TEF value were made based on a combination of unweighted relative effect potency (REP) distributions from this database, expert judgment, and point estimates. Previous TEFs were assigned in increments of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, etc., but for this reevaluation, it was decided to use half order of magnitude increments on a logarithmic scale of 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, etc. Changes were decided by the expert panel for 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) (TEF = 0.3), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) (TEF = 0.03), octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and octachlorodibenzofuran (TEFs = 0.0003), 3,4,4',5-tetrachlorbiphenyl (PCB 81) (TEF = 0.0003), 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) (TEF = 0.03), and a single TEF value (0.00003) for all relevant mono-ortho-substituted PCBs. Additivity, an important prerequisite of the TEF concept was again confirmed by results from recent in vivo mixture studies. Some experimental evidence shows that non-dioxin-like aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists/antagonists are able to impact the overall toxic potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds, and this needs to be investigated further. Certain individual and groups of compounds were identified for possible future inclusion in the TEF concept, including 3,4,4'-TCB (PCB 37), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, mixed polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyhalogenated naphthalenes, and polybrominated biphenyls. Concern was expressed about direct application of the TEF/total toxic equivalency (TEQ) approach to abiotic matrices, such as soil, sediment, etc., for direct application in human risk assessment. This is problematic as the present TEF scheme and TEQ methodology are primarily intended for estimating exposure and risks via oral ingestion (e.g., by dietary intake). A number of future approaches to determine alternative or additional TEFs were also identified. These included the use of a probabilistic methodology to determine TEFs that better describe the associated levels of uncertainty and "systemic" TEFs for blood and adipose tissue and TEQ for body burden.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Characterization of Weighted Quantile Sum Regression for Highly Correlated Data in a Risk Analysis Setting

              In risk evaluation, the effect of mixtures of environmental chemicals on a common adverse outcome is of interest. However, due to the high dimensionality and inherent correlations among chemicals that occur together, the traditional methods (e.g. ordinary or logistic regression) suffer from collinearity and variance inflation, and shrinkage methods have limitations in selecting among correlated components. We propose a weighted quantile sum (WQS) approach to estimating a body burden index, which identifies "bad actors" in a set of highly correlated environmental chemicals. We evaluate and characterize the accuracy of WQS regression in variable selection through extensive simulation studies through sensitivity and specificity (i.e., ability of the WQS method to select the bad actors correctly and not incorrect ones). We demonstrate the improvement in accuracy this method provides over traditional ordinary regression and shrinkage methods (lasso, adaptive lasso, and elastic net). Results from simulations demonstrate that WQS regression is accurate under some environmentally relevant conditions, but its accuracy decreases for a fixed correlation pattern as the association with a response variable diminishes. Nonzero weights (i.e., weights exceeding a selection threshold parameter) may be used to identify bad actors; however, components within a cluster of highly correlated active components tend to have lower weights, with the sum of their weights representative of the set.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                IJERGQ
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                IJERPH
                MDPI AG
                1660-4601
                January 2022
                January 08 2022
                : 19
                : 2
                : 694
                Article
                10.3390/ijerph19020694
                36961105-f2ce-43c5-8110-17965fc0bf5f
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article