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Tropical ocean temperatures over the past 3.5 million years.

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      Determining the timing and amplitude of tropical sea surface temperature (SST) change is an important part of solving the puzzle of the Plio-Pleistocene ice ages. Alkenone-based tropical SST records from the major ocean basins show coherent glacial-interglacial temperature changes of 1 degrees to 3 degrees C that align with (but slightly lead) global changes in ice volume and deep ocean temperature over the past 3.5 million years. Tropical temperatures became tightly coupled with benthic delta18O and orbital forcing after 2.7 million years. We interpret the similarity of tropical SST changes, in dynamically dissimilar regions, to reflect "top-down" forcing through the atmosphere. The inception of a strong carbon dioxide-greenhouse gas feedback and amplification of orbital forcing at approximately 2.7 million years ago connected the fate of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets with global ocean temperatures since that time.

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      [1 ] Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.
      Science (New York, N.Y.)
      Jun 18 2010
      : 328
      : 5985
      20558711 328/5985/1530 10.1126/science.1185435


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