Michael Aschner 1 , Sandra Ceccatelli 2 , Mardas Daneshian 3 , Ellen Fritsche 4 , Nina Hasiwa 3 , Thomas Hartung 3 , 5 , Helena T. Hogberg 5 , Marcel Leist 3 , 6 , 7 , Abby Li 8 , William R. Mundy 9 , Stephanie Padilla 9 , Aldert H. Piersma 10 , 11 , Anna Bal-Price 12 , Andrea Seiler 13 , Remco H. Westerink 14 , Bastian Zimmer 15 , Pamela J. Lein 16 , 17
25 July 2016
There is a paucity of information concerning the developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) hazard posed by industrial and environmental chemicals. New testing approaches will most likely be based on batteries of alternative and complementary (non-animal) tests. As DNT is assumed to result from the modulation of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes (such as neuronal differentiation, precursor cell migration or neuronal network formation) by chemicals, the first generation of alternative DNT tests target these processes. The advantage of such types of assays is that they capture toxicants with multiple targets and modes-of-action. Moreover, the processes modelled by the assays can be linked to toxicity endophenotypes, i.e. alterations in neural connectivity that form the basis for neurofunctional deficits in man. The authors of this review convened in a workshop to define criteria for the selection of positive/negative controls, to prepare recommendations on their use, and to initiate the setup of a directory of reference chemicals. For initial technical optimization of tests, a set of >50 endpoint-specific control compounds was identified. For further test development, an additional “test” set of 33 chemicals considered to act directly as bona fide DNT toxicants is proposed, and each chemical is annotated to the extent it fulfills these criteria. A tabular compilation of the original literature used to select the test set chemicals provides information on statistical procedures, and toxic/non-toxic doses (both for pups and dams). Suggestions are provided on how to use the >100 compounds (including negative controls) compiled here to address specificity, adversity and use of alternative test systems.