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      Pharmacy students’ attitudes toward pharmaceutical care in Qatar

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          The study objectives were to investigate Qatar pharmacy students’ attitudes toward pharmaceutical care (PC), to identify the factors that influence their attitudes, and to recognize their perceived barriers for PC provision.


          A cross-sectional and online survey of Qatar pharmacy students was conducted.


          Over 4 weeks, 46 surveys were submitted (88% response rate). All respondents agreed that the pharmacist’s primary responsibility is to prevent and resolve medication therapy problems. Most respondents believed that PC provision is professionally rewarding and that all pharmacists should provide PC (93% and 91% of respondents, respectively). Highly perceived barriers for PC provision included lack of access to patient information (76%), inadequate drug information sources (55%), and time constraints (53%). Professional year and practical experience duration were inversely significantly associated with four and five statements, respectively, out of the 13 Standard Pharmaceutical Care Attitudes Survey statements, including the statements related to the value of PC, and its benefit in improving patient health and pharmacy practitioners’ careers.


          Qatar pharmacy students had positive attitudes toward PC. Efforts should be exerted to overcome their perceived barriers.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Social Foundation for thought and action: a social cognitive theory

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            Practice change in community pharmacy: quantification of facilitators.

            There has been an increasing international trend toward the delivery of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS) in community pharmacy. CPS have been developed and disseminated individually, without a framework underpinning their implementation and with limited knowledge of factors that might assist practice change. The implementation process is complex, involving a range of internal and external factors. To quantify facilitators of practice change in Australian community pharmacies. We employed a literature review and qualitative study to facilitate the design of a 43-item "facilitators of practice change" scale as part of a quantitative survey instrument, using a framework of organizational theory. The questionnaire was pilot-tested (n = 100), then mailed to a random sample of 2000 community pharmacies, with a copy each for the pharmacy owner, employed pharmacist, and pharmacy assistant. The construct validity and reliability of the scale were established using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. A total of 735 (37%) pharmacies responded, with 1303 individual questionnaires. Factor analysis of the scale yielded 7 factors, explaining 48.8% of the total variance. The factors were: relationship with physicians (item loading range 0.59-0.85; Cronbach's alpha 0.90), remuneration (0.52-0.74; 0.82), pharmacy layout (0.52-0.79; 0.81), patient expectation (0.52-0.85; 0.82), manpower/staff (0.49-0.66; 0.80), communication and teamwork (0.37-0.65; 0.77), and external support/assistance (0.47-0.69; 0.74). All of the factors demonstrated good reliability and construct validity and explained approximately half of the variance. Implementing CPS requires support not only with the clinical aspects of service delivery, but also for the process of implementation itself, and remuneration models must reflect this. The identified facilitators should be used in a multilevel strategy to integrate professional services into the community pharmacy business, engaging pharmacists and their staff, policy makers, educators, and researchers. Further research is required to determine additional factors impacting the capacity of community pharmacies to implement change.
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              Effect of a pharmaceutical care program on vascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study.

              To examine the effect of a 12-month pharmaceutical care (PC) program on vascular risk in type 2 diabetes. We recruited 198 community-based patients randomized to PC or usual care. PC patients had face-to-face goal-directed medication and lifestyle counseling at baseline and at 6 and 12 months plus 6-weekly telephone assessments and provision of other educational material. Clinical, biochemical, and medication-related data were sent regularly to each patient's physician(s). The main outcome measure was change in HbA(1c). A diabetes-specific risk engine was used to estimate changes in 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk in patients without a history of cardiovascular disease. At total of 180 patients (91%) completed the study. Mean (95% CI) reductions were greater in PC case subjects (n = 92) than control subjects (n = 88) for HbA(1c) (-0.5% [95% CI -0.7 to -0.3] vs. 0 [-0.2 to 0.2]) and systolic (-14 mmHg [-19 to -9] vs. -7 [-11 to -2]) and diastolic (-5 mmHg [-8 to -3] vs. -2 [-4 to 1]) blood pressure (P < or = 0.043). The improvement in HbA(1c) persisted after adjustment for baseline value and demographic and treatment-specific variables. The median (interquartile range) 10-year estimated risk of a first CHD event decreased in the PC case subjects (25.1% [15.6-36.2] to 20.3 [14.6-30.2]; n = 42, P = 0.002) but not in the control subjects (26.1% [17.2-39.4] vs. 26.4 [16.7-38.0]; n = 52, P = 0.17). A 12-month PC program in type 2 diabetes reduced glycemia and blood pressure. Pharmacist involvement contributed to improvement in HbA(1c) independently of pharmacotherapeutic changes. PC could prove a valuable component of community-based multidisciplinary diabetes care.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                18 February 2014
                : 10
                : 121-129
                [1 ]College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
                [2 ]National Centre for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR), Doha, Qatar
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Maguy S El Hajj, College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar 2713, Tel +974 4403 5577, Fax +974 4403 5551, Email maguyh@ 123456qu.edu.qa
                © 2014 El Hajj et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                student, pharmacy, pharmaceutical care, qatar


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