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      The Age of Coumarins in Plant–Microbe Interactions

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          Abstract

          Coumarins are a family of plant-derived secondary metabolites that are produced via the phenylpropanoid pathway. In the past decade, coumarins have emerged as iron-mobilizing compounds that are secreted by plant roots and aid in iron uptake from iron-deprived soils. Members of the coumarin family are found in many plant species. Besides their role in iron uptake, coumarins have been extensively studied for their potential to fight infections in both plants and animals. Coumarin activities range from antimicrobial and antiviral to anticoagulant and anticancer. In recent years, studies in the model plant species tobacco and Arabidopsis have significantly increased our understanding of coumarin biosynthesis, accumulation, secretion, chemical modification and their modes of action against plant pathogens. Here, we review current knowledge on coumarins in different plant species. We focus on simple coumarins and provide an overview on their biosynthesis and role in environmental stress responses, with special attention for the recently discovered semiochemical role of coumarins in aboveground and belowground plant–microbe interactions and the assembly of the root microbiome.

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          Most cited references120

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          Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes.

          Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens and insect herbivores. A wide variety of root-associated mutualists, including Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Trichoderma, and mycorrhiza species sensitize the plant immune system for enhanced defense without directly activating costly defenses. This review focuses on molecular processes at the interface between plant roots and ISR-eliciting mutualists, and on the progress in our understanding of ISR signaling and systemic defense priming. The central role of the root-specific transcription factor MYB72 in the onset of ISR and the role of phytohormones and defense regulatory proteins in the expression of ISR in aboveground plant parts are highlighted. Finally, the ecological function of ISR-inducing microbes in the root microbiome is discussed.
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            Speak, friend, and enter: signalling systems that promote beneficial symbiotic associations in plants.

            Plants associate with a wide range of microorganisms, with both detrimental and beneficial outcomes. Central to plant survival is the ability to recognize invading microorganisms and either limit their intrusion, in the case of pathogens, or promote the association, in the case of symbionts. To aid in this recognition process, elaborate communication and counter-communication systems have been established that determine the degree of ingress of the microorganism into the host plant. In this Review, I describe the common signalling processes used by plants during mutualistic interactions with microorganisms as diverse as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobial bacteria.
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              Natural products and plant disease resistance.

              R Dixon (2001)
              Plants elaborate a vast array of natural products, many of which have evolved to confer selective advantage against microbial attack. Recent advances in molecular technology, aided by the enormous power of large-scale genomics initiatives, are leading to a more complete understanding of the enzymatic machinery that underlies the often complex pathways of plant natural product biosynthesis. Meanwhile, genetic and reverse genetic approaches are providing evidence for the importance of natural products in host defence. Metabolic engineering of natural product pathways is now a feasible strategy for enhancement of plant disease resistance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Plant Cell Physiol
                Plant Cell Physiol
                pcp
                Plant and Cell Physiology
                Oxford University Press
                0032-0781
                1471-9053
                July 2019
                10 May 2019
                10 May 2019
                : 60
                : 7 , Spotlight Issue Iron Nutrition and Interactions in Plants
                : 1405-1419
                Affiliations
                Plant-Microbe Interactions, Department of Biology, Science4Life, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, Utrecht, 3584 CH, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: E-mail, I.Stringlis@ 123456uu.nl ; Fax,+31 30 253 2837.
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7128-597X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5065-8538
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5473-4646
                Article
                pcz076
                10.1093/pcp/pcz076
                6915228
                31076771
                36a8d2c1-cc8f-4c52-ad83-4385b459be41
                � The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                History
                : 09 February 2019
                : 23 April 2019
                Page count
                Pages: 15
                Funding
                Funded by: Dutch Technology Foundation TTW
                Funded by: Netherlands Organization of Scientific Research
                Funded by: NWO 10.13039/501100003246
                Funded by: Ministry of Economic Affairs 10.13039/501100003195
                Award ID: 14219
                Funded by: NWO ALW Green II project
                Award ID: ALWGR.2017.002
                Categories
                Special Issue ‐ Reviews
                Editor's Choice

                Plant science & Botany
                coumarins,iron homeostasis,microbiome,plant–microbe interactions,scopoletin,secondary metabolism

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