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      Antiplatelet agents in perioperative noncardiac surgeries: to maintain or to suspend?

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          Abstract

          Background

          When prescribing antiplatelet agents, physicians face the challenge of protecting patients from thromboembolic events without inducing bleeding damage. However, especially in the perioperative period, the use of these medications requires a carefully balanced assessment of their risks and benefits.

          Objective

          To conduct a systematic review to check whether the antiplatelet agent is to be maintained or suspended in the perioperative period of noncardiac surgeries.

          Search strategy

          A comprehensive literature search using Science Direct, Scopus, MEDLINE-PubMed, and Web of Science was undertaken.

          Selection criteria

          Clinical trials of noncardiac surgeries with patients taking regular anti-platelet therapy, published between 2013 and 2018.

          Results

          A total of 1,302 studies were initially identified, with only four meeting the inclusion criteria. The selected studies were conducted in different countries such as, including India (2), Serbia (1), and the USA (1). The age group was similar in all studies, from 61 to 75 years. The most frequent surgery was related to tooth extraction and transurethral resection of bladder cancer. There was a group of patients who used single antiplatelet agents and groups who used single therapy and double therapy. Acetylsalicylic acid was the common drug in all studies.

          Conclusion

          It was concluded that the clinical trials were classified as good quality and that it was not necessary to suspend antiplatelet therapy prior to surgical procedures such as dental extraction and transurethral resection of bladder cancer. It should be noted that it is necessary to jointly evaluate the type of antiplatelet agent, the thrombotic risk of the patient, and the hemorrhagic risk of the surgical procedure.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study.

          Prevention and control of disease and injury require information about the leading medical causes of illness and exposures or risk factors. The assessment of the public-health importance of these has been hampered by the lack of common methods to investigate the overall, worldwide burden. The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) provides a standardised approach to epidemiological assessment and uses a standard unit, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY), to aid comparisons. DALYs for each age-sex group in each GBD region for 107 disorders were calculated, based on the estimates of mortality by cause, incidence, average age of onset, duration, and disability severity. Estimates of the burden and prevalence of exposure in different regions of disorders attributable to malnutrition, poor water supply, sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene, unsafe sex, tobacco use, alcohol, occupation, hypertension, physical inactivity, use of illicit drugs, and air pollution were developed. Developed regions account for 11.6% of the worldwide burden from all causes of death and disability, and account for 90.2% of health expenditure worldwide. Communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders explain 43.9%; non-communicable causes 40.9%; injuries 15.1%; malignant neoplasms 5.1%; neuropsychiatric conditions 10.5%; and cardiovascular conditions 9.7% of DALYs worldwide. The ten leading specific causes of global DALYs are, in descending order, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, perinatal disorders, unipolar major depression, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, tuberculosis, measles, road-traffic accidents, and congenital anomalies. 15.9% of DALYs worldwide are attributable to childhood malnutrition and 6.8% to poor water, and sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene. The three leading contributors to the burden of disease are communicable and perinatal disorders affecting children. The substantial burdens of neuropsychiatric disorders and injuries are under-recognised. The epidemiological transition in terms of DALYs has progressed substantially in China, Latin America and the Caribbean, other Asia and islands, and the middle eastern crescent. If the burdens of disability and death are taken into account, our list differs substantially from other lists of the leading causes of death. DALYs provide a common metric to aid meaningful comparison of the burden of risk factors, diseases, and injuries.
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            Association between postoperative troponin levels and 30-day mortality among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.

            Of the 200 million adults worldwide who undergo noncardiac surgery each year, more than 1 million will die within 30 days. To determine the relationship between the peak fourth-generation troponin T (TnT) measurement in the first 3 days after noncardiac surgery and 30-day mortality. A prospective, international cohort study that enrolled patients from August 6, 2007, to January 11, 2011. Eligible patients were aged 45 years and older and required at least an overnight hospital admission after having noncardiac surgery. Patients' TnT levels were measured 6 to 12 hours after surgery and on days 1, 2, and 3 after surgery. We undertook Cox regression analysis in which the dependent variable was mortality until 30 days after surgery, and the independent variables included 24 preoperative variables. We repeated this analysis, adding the peak TnT measurement during the first 3 postoperative days as an independent variable and used a minimum P value approach to determine if there were TnT thresholds that independently altered patients' risk of death. A total of 15,133 patients were included in this study. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.7%-2.1%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that peak TnT values of at least 0.02 ng/mL, occurring in 11.6% of patients, were associated with higher 30-day mortality compared with the reference group (peak TnT ≤ 0.01 ng/mL): peak TnT of 0.02 ng/mL (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.41; 95% CI, 1.33-3.77); 0.03 to 0.29 ng/mL (aHR, 5.00; 95% CI, 3.72-6.76); and 0.30 ng/mL or greater (aHR, 10.48; 95% CI, 6.25-16.62). Patients with a peak TnT value of 0.01 ng/mL or less, 0.02, 0.03-0.29, and 0.30 or greater had 30-day mortality rates of 1.0%, 4.0%, 9.3%, and 16.9%, respectively. Peak TnT measurement added incremental prognostic value to discriminate those likely to die within 30 days for the model with peak TnT measurement vs without (C index = 0.85 vs 0.81; difference, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.5; P < .001 for difference between C index values). The net reclassification improvement with TnT was 25.0% (P < .001). Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, the peak postoperative TnT measurement during the first 3 days after surgery was significantly associated with 30-day mortality.
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              Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery: a large, international, prospective cohort study establishing diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes.

              Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) was defined as prognostically relevant myocardial injury due to ischemia that occurs during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. The study's four objectives were to determine the diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes of MINS. In this international, prospective cohort study of 15,065 patients aged 45 yr or older who underwent in-patient noncardiac surgery, troponin T was measured during the first 3 postoperative days. Patients with a troponin T level of 0.04 ng/ml or greater (elevated "abnormal" laboratory threshold) were assessed for ischemic features (i.e., ischemic symptoms and electrocardiography findings). Patients adjudicated as having a nonischemic troponin elevation (e.g., sepsis) were excluded. To establish diagnostic criteria for MINS, the authors used Cox regression analyses in which the dependent variable was 30-day mortality (260 deaths) and independent variables included preoperative variables, perioperative complications, and potential MINS diagnostic criteria. An elevated troponin after noncardiac surgery, irrespective of the presence of an ischemic feature, independently predicted 30-day mortality. Therefore, the authors' diagnostic criterion for MINS was a peak troponin T level of 0.03 ng/ml or greater judged due to myocardial ischemia. MINS was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.96-5.08) and had the highest population-attributable risk (34.0%, 95% CI, 26.6-41.5) of the perioperative complications. Twelve hundred patients (8.0%) suffered MINS, and 58.2% of these patients would not have fulfilled the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Only 15.8% of patients with MINS experienced an ischemic symptom. Among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery, MINS is common and associated with substantial mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                05 October 2018
                : 14
                : 1887-1895
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Nucleus of Post-Graduation in Health Sciences, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil, jumariapharma@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Nucleus of Pharmacy, Tiradentes University, Aracaju, Brazil, jumariapharma@ 123456gmail.com
                [3 ]Nucleus of Post-Graduation in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil
                [4 ]Institute for Safe Practice in Drug Use, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Juliana Maria Dantas Mendonça Borges, Federal University of Sergipe, Av Prof Marechal Rondon, s/n Jardim Rosa Elze, CEP49.100-000 São Cristovão, Sergipe, Brazil, Tel +55 79 9 9982 9326, Email jumariapharma@ 123456gmail.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                tcrm-14-1887
                10.2147/TCRM.S172591
                6178938
                © 2018 Borges et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                platelet aggregation inhibitors, antiplatelet agent, surgery, systematic review

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