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      Retention of a chromosomal inversion from an anadromous ancestor provides the genetic basis for alternative freshwater ecotypes in rainbow trout

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      Molecular Ecology

      Wiley

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          The genomic basis of adaptive evolution in threespine sticklebacks

          Summary Marine stickleback fish have colonized and adapted to innumerable streams and lakes formed since the last ice age, providing an exceptional opportunity to characterize genomic mechanisms underlying repeated ecological adaptation in nature. Here we develop a high quality reference genome assembly for threespine sticklebacks. By sequencing the genomes of 20 additional individuals from a global set of marine and freshwater populations, we identify a genome-wide set of loci that are consistently associated with marine-freshwater divergence. Our results suggest that reuse of globally-shared standing genetic variation, including chromosomal inversions, plays an important role in repeated evolution of distinct marine and freshwater sticklebacks, and in the maintenance of divergent ecotypes during early stages of reproductive isolation. Both coding and regulatory changes occur in the set of loci underlying marine-freshwater evolution, with regulatory changes likely predominating in this classic example of repeated adaptive evolution in nature.
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            Mutations of mitotic checkpoint genes in human cancers.

            Genetic instability was one of the first characteristics to be postulated to underlie neoplasia. Such genetic instability occurs in two different forms. In a small fraction of colorectal and some other cancers, defective repair of mismatched bases results in an increased mutation rate at the nucleotide level and consequent widespread microsatellite instability. In most colorectal cancers, and probably in many other cancer types, a chromosomal instability (CIN) leading to an abnormal chromosome number (aneuploidy) is observed. The physiological and molecular bases of this pervasive abnormality are unknown. Here we show that CIN is consistently associated with the loss of function of a mitotic checkpoint. Moreover, in some cancers displaying CIN the loss of this checkpoint was associated with the mutational inactivation of a human homologue of the yeast BUB1 gene; BUB1 controls mitotic checkpoints and chromosome segregation in yeast. The normal mitotic checkpoints of cells displaying microsatellite instability become defective upon transfer of mutant hBUB1 alleles from either of two CIN cancers.
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              Estimators for pairwise relatedness and individual inbreeding coefficients

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecular Ecology
                Mol Ecol
                Wiley
                0962-1083
                1365-294X
                April 20 2019
                March 2019
                April 20 2019
                March 2019
                : 28
                : 6
                : 1412-1427
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences University of Washington Seattle Washington
                Article
                10.1111/mec.15037
                © 2019

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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