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      Dopamine Modulates Insulin Release and Is Involved in the Survival of Rat Pancreatic Beta Cells

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          The local synthesis of dopamine and its effects on insulin release have been described in isolated islets. Thus, it may be accepted that dopamine exerts an auto-paracrine regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. The aim of the present study is to analyze whether dopamine is a regulator of the proliferation and apoptosis of rat pancreatic beta cells after glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Glucose stimulated pancreatic islets obtained from male Wistar rats were cultured with 1 or 10 μM dopamine from 1 to 12 h. Insulin secretion was analyzed by RIA. The cellular proliferation rate of pancreatic islets and beta cells was studied with immunocytochemical double labelling for both insulin and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and active caspase-3 was detected to evaluate apoptosis. The secretion of insulin from isolated islets was significantly inhibited (p<0.01), by treatment with 1 and 10 μM dopamine, with no differences between either dose as early as 1 h after treatment. The percentage of insulin-positive cells in the islets decreased significantly (p<0.01) after 1 h of treatment up to 12 h. The proliferation rate of insulin-positive cells in the islets decreased significantly (p<0.01) following treatment with dopamine. Apoptosis in pancreatic islets and beta cells was increased by treatment with 1 and 10 μM dopamine along 12 h. In conclusion, these results suggest that dopamine could modulate the proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells and that dopamine may be involved in the maintenance of pancreatic islets.

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          Mechanisms of pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: many differences, few similarities.

          Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are characterized by progressive beta-cell failure. Apoptosis is probably the main form of beta-cell death in both forms of the disease. It has been suggested that the mechanisms leading to nutrient- and cytokine-induced beta-cell death in type 2 and type 1 diabetes, respectively, share the activation of a final common pathway involving interleukin (IL)-1beta, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, and Fas. We review herein the similarities and differences between the mechanisms of beta-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In the insulitis lesion in type 1 diabetes, invading immune cells produce cytokines, such as IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. IL-1beta and/or TNF-alpha plus IFN-gamma induce beta-cell apoptosis via the activation of beta-cell gene networks under the control of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and STAT-1. NF-kappaB activation leads to production of nitric oxide (NO) and chemokines and depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium. The execution of beta-cell death occurs through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, via triggering of ER stress and by the release of mitochondrial death signals. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucose and free fatty acids (FFAs) causes beta-cell dysfunction and may induce beta-cell apoptosis in type 2 diabetes. Exposure to high glucose has dual effects, triggering initially "glucose hypersensitization" and later apoptosis, via different mechanisms. High glucose, however, does not induce or activate IL-1beta, NF-kappaB, or inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat or human beta-cells in vitro or in vivo in Psammomys obesus. FFAs may cause beta-cell apoptosis via ER stress, which is NF-kappaB and NO independent. Thus, cytokines and nutrients trigger beta-cell death by fundamentally different mechanisms, namely an NF-kappaB-dependent mechanism that culminates in caspase-3 activation for cytokines and an NF-kappaB-independent mechanism for nutrients. This argues against a unifying hypothesis for the mechanisms of beta-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes and suggests that different approaches will be required to prevent beta-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
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            Chronic hyperglycemia triggers loss of pancreatic beta cell differentiation in an animal model of diabetes.

            Differentiated pancreatic beta cells are unique in their ability to secrete insulin in response to a rise in plasma glucose. We have proposed that the unique constellation of genes they express may be lost in diabetes due to the deleterious effect of chronic hyperglycemia. To test this hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to a 85-95% pancreatectomy or sham pancreatectomy. One week later, the animals developed mild to severe chronic hyperglycemia that was stable for the next 3 weeks, without significant alteration of plasma nonesterified fatty acid levels. Expression of many genes important for glucose-induced insulin release decreased progressively with increasing hyperglycemia, in parallel with a reduction of several islet transcription factors involved in beta cell development and differentiation. In contrast, genes barely expressed in sham islets (lactate dehydrogenase A and hexokinase I) were markedly increased, in parallel with an increase in the transcription factor c-Myc, a potent stimulator of cell growth. These abnormalities were accompanied by beta cell hypertrophy. Changes in gene expression were fully developed 2 weeks after pancreatectomy. Correction of blood glucose by phlorizin for the next 2 weeks normalized islet gene expression and beta cell volume without affecting plasma nonesterified fatty acid levels, strongly suggesting that hyperglycemia triggers these abnormalities. In conclusion, chronic hyperglycemia leads to beta cell hypertrophy and loss of beta cell differentiation that is correlated with changes in c-Myc and other key transcription factors. A similar change in beta cell differentiation could contribute to the profound derangement of insulin secretion in human diabetes.
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              On the origin of the beta cell.

              The major forms of diabetes are characterized by pancreatic islet beta-cell dysfunction and decreased beta-cell numbers, raising hope for cell replacement therapy. Although human islet transplantation is a cell-based therapy under clinical investigation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, the limited availability of human cadaveric islets for transplantation will preclude its widespread therapeutic application. The result has been an intense focus on the development of alternate sources of beta cells, such as through the guided differentiation of stem or precursor cell populations or the transdifferentiation of more plentiful mature cell populations. Realizing the potential for cell-based therapies, however, requires a thorough understanding of pancreas development and beta-cell formation. Pancreas development is coordinated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways and transcription factors that determine early pancreatic specification as well as the later differentiation of exocrine and endocrine lineages. This review describes the current knowledge of these factors as they relate specifically to the emergence of endocrine beta cells from pancreatic endoderm. Current therapeutic efforts to generate insulin-producing beta-like cells from embryonic stem cells have already capitalized on recent advances in our understanding of the embryonic signals and transcription factors that dictate lineage specification and will most certainly be further enhanced by a continuing emphasis on the identification of novel factors and regulatory relationships.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                17 April 2015
                : 10
                : 4
                [1 ]Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
                [2 ]Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
                [3 ]Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León, and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology and Obesity of IBSAL, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
                La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: JC MJGB. Performed the experiments: MJGB MCIO EJB MCH VSR LC JC SC. Analyzed the data: MJGB MCIO EJB JC SC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MJGB MCH VSR LC JC. Wrote the paper: JC MJGB.


                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Pages: 16
                This work was supported by Junta de Castilla y León grant BIO103/SA18/11. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
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