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      Protein Transfection of Intact Microvessels Specifically Modulates Vasoreactivity and Permeability


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          Precise regulation of microvascular tone and barrier function is essential for proper coronary perfusion and performance. Agonist-induced alterations in either or both of these functions ultimately lead to microcirculatory dysfunction and cardiac insufficiency. Two important pathways involved in regulating vasomotor response and barrier function are the activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and upregulation of protein kinase C (PKC). To date, studies of these two signaling proteins have relied mainly on pharmacological approaches. Unfortunately, the specificity of various inhibitors can be cause for concern. In order to address this problem, a protein transfection technique we developed for cultured endothelial cells has been modified and applied to isolated, intact coronary microvessels. Our results from green fluorescent protein transfection in arterioles and venules showed that this procedure could be used to introduce proteins into the microvascular wall. By transfecting inhibitor peptides against NOS and PKC into coronary arterioles and venules, we have been able to determine the specific roles of these two enzymes in vasodilation and hyperpermeability responses.

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          Activated neutrophils induce hyperpermeability and phosphorylation of adherens junction proteins in coronary venular endothelial cells.

           A Taulman,  W. Ma,  Hong-wu Du (1999)
          The endothelial adherens junction is formed by complexes of transmembrane adhesive proteins, of which beta-catenin is known to connect the junctional protein vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin to the cytoskeleton and to play a signaling role in the regulation of junction-cytoskeleton interaction. In this study, we investigated the effect of neutrophil activation on endothelial monolayer integrity and on beta-catenin and VE-cadherin modification. Treatment of cultured bovine coronary endothelial monolayers with C5a-activated neutrophils resulted in an increase in permeability as measured by albumin clearance across the monolayer. Furthermore, large scale intercellular gap formation was observed in coincidence with the hyperpermeability response. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that beta-catenin and VE-cadherin staining changed from a uniform distribution along the membrane of control cells to a diffuse pattern for both proteins and finger-like projections for beta-catenin in neutrophil-exposed monolayers. Correlatively, there was an increase in actin stress fiber formation in treated cells. Finally, beta-catenin and VE-cadherin from neutrophil-treated endothelial cells showed a significant increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. Our results are the first to link neutrophil-mediated changes in adherens junctions with intercellular gap formation and hyperpermeability in microvascular endothelial cells. These data suggest that neutrophils may regulate endothelial barrier function through a process conferring conformational changes to beta-catenin and VE-cadherin.
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            Protein kinase C beta modulates thrombin-induced Ca2+ signaling and endothelial permeability increase


              Author and article information

              J Vasc Res
              Journal of Vascular Research
              S. Karger AG
              October 2001
              17 September 2001
              : 38
              : 5
              : 444-452
              Departments of Surgery and Medical Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Temple, Tex., USA
              51077 J Vasc Res 2001;38:444–452
              © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 7, References: 27, Pages: 9
              Research Paper


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