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      The Use of Lanreotide in Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Single-Centre Experience

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          Abstract

          The secretion of large volumes of fluid into cysts and changes in the structure and mobility of the cilia of the renal tubular epithelium can lead to nephromegaly. This in turn often causes a deterioration of kidney function and arterial hypertension. In recent clinical studies, somatostatin analogues have demonstrated efficacy in isolated polycystic liver disease and, to a lesser extent, in polycystic kidney disease. Since the publication of these clinical studies, several patients have been referred to us for somatostatin analogue treatment. Here, we report our experience with 6 patients who were treated with lanreotide autogel 120 mg every 4 weeks over 6, 12 or 18 months and were longitudinally followed using CT scans without contrast agents, to evaluate the total bilateral kidney volume. We observed a mean decrease in volume of 4%, with mild to moderate side effects.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

          Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most prevalent, potentially lethal, monogenic disorder. It is associated with large interfamilial and intrafamilial variability, which can be explained to a large extent by its genetic heterogeneity and modifier genes. An increased understanding of the disorder's underlying genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms and a better appreciation of its progression and systemic manifestations have laid out the foundation for the development of clinical trials and potentially effective treatments.
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            Volume progression in polycystic kidney disease.

            Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by progressive enlargement of cyst-filled kidneys. In a three-year study, we measured the rates of change in total kidney volume, total cyst volume, and iothalamate clearance in patients with ADPKD. Of a total of 241 patients, in 232 patients without azotemia who were 15 to 46 years old at baseline we used magnetic-resonance imaging to correlate the total kidney volume and total cyst volume with iothalamate clearance. Statistical methods included analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, and multivariate regression analysis. Total kidney volume and total cyst volume increased exponentially, a result consistent with an expansion process dependent on growth. The mean (+/-SD) total kidney volume was 1060+/-642 ml at baseline and increased by a mean of 204+/-246 ml (5.27+/-3.92 percent per year, P<0.001) over a three-year period among 214 patients. Total cyst volume increased by 218+/-263 ml (P<0.001) during the same period among 210 patients. The baseline total kidney volume predicted the subsequent rate of increase in volume, independently of age. A baseline total kidney volume above 1500 ml in 51 patients was associated with a declining glomerular filtration rate (by 4.33+/-8.07 ml per minute per year, P<0.001). Total kidney volume increased more in 135 patients with PKD1 mutations (by 245+/-268 ml) than in 28 patients with PKD2 mutations (by 136+/-100 ml, P=0.03). Kidney enlargement resulting from the expansion of cysts in patients with ADPKD is continuous and quantifiable and is associated with the decline of renal function. Higher rates of kidney enlargement are associated with a more rapid decrease in renal function. Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Effect of longacting somatostatin analogue on kidney and cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ALADIN): a randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial.

              Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease slowly progresses to end-stage renal disease and has no effective therapy. A pilot study suggested that the somatostatin analogue octreotide longacting release (LAR) could be nephroprotective in this context. We aimed to assess the effect of 3 years of octreotide-LAR treatment on kidney and cyst growth and renal function decline in participants with this disorder. We did an academic, multicentre, randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in five hospitals in Italy. Adult (>18 years) patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 40 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) or higher were randomly assigned (central allocation by phone with a computerised list, 1:1 ratio, stratified by centre, block size four and eight) to 3 year treatment with two 20 mg intramuscular injections of octreotide-LAR (n=40) or 0·9% sodium chloride solution (n=39) every 28 days. Study physicians and nurses were aware of the allocated group; participants and outcome assessors were masked to allocation. The primary endpoint was change in total kidney volume (TKV), measured by MRI, at 1 year and 3 year follow-up. Analyses were by modified intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00309283. Recruitment was between April 27, 2006, and May 12, 2008. 38 patients in the octreotide-LAR group and 37 patients in the placebo group had evaluable MRI scans at 1 year follow-up, at this timepoint, mean TKV increased significantly less in the octreotide-LAR group (46·2 mL, SE 18·2) compared with the placebo group (143·7 mL, 26·0; p=0·032). 35 patients in each group had evaluable MRI scans at 3 year follow-up, at this timepoint, mean TKV increase in the octreotide-LAR group (220·1 mL, 49·1) was numerically smaller than in the placebo group (454·3 mL, 80·8), but the difference was not significant (p=0·25). 37 (92·5%) participants in the octreotide-LAR group and 32 (82·1%) in the placebo group had at least one adverse event (p=0·16). Participants with serious adverse events were similarly distributed in the two treatment groups. However, four cases of cholelithiasis or acute cholecystitis occurred in the octreotide-LAR group and were probably treatment-related. These findings provide the background for large randomised controlled trials to test the protective effect of somatostatin analogues against renal function loss and progression to end-stage kidney disease. Polycystic Kidney Disease Foundation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRU
                CND
                10.1159/issn.2296-9705
                Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
                S. Karger AG
                2296-9705
                2014
                January – April 2014
                05 February 2014
                : 4
                : 1
                : 18-24
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNephrodialysis and bRadiology, and cGastroenterology, Charleroi University Hospital, Charleroi, Belgium
                Author notes
                *Serge Treille, Nephrology Unit, CHU de Charleroi, Boulevard Paul Janson 92, BE-6000 Charleroi (Belgium), E-Mail serge.treille@chu-charleroi.be
                Article
                358268 PMC3975724 Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2014;4:18-24
                10.1159/000358268
                PMC3975724
                24707279
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Published: February 2014

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