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Cellular uptake and trafficking of antisense oligonucleotides

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      Abstract

      Understanding how antisense oligonucleotides get into and around cells could inform design of improved therapies.Understanding how antisense oligonucleotides get into and around cells could inform design of improved therapies.

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      Most cited references 52

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      RNA targeting therapeutics: molecular mechanisms of antisense oligonucleotides as a therapeutic platform.

      Dramatic advances in understanding of the roles RNA plays in normal health and disease have greatly expanded over the past 10 years and have made it clear that scientists are only beginning to comprehend the biology of RNAs. It is likely that RNA will become an increasingly important target for therapeutic intervention; therefore, it is important to develop strategies for therapeutically modulating RNA function. Antisense oligonucleotides are perhaps the most direct therapeutic strategy to approach RNA. Antisense oligonucleotides are designed to bind to the target RNA by well-characterized Watson-Crick base pairing, and once bound to the target RNA, modulate its function through a variety of postbinding events. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms by which antisense oligonucleotides can be designed to modulate RNA function in mammalian cells and how synthetic oligonucleotides behave in the body.
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        Image-based analysis of lipid nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery, intracellular trafficking and endosomal escape.

        Delivery of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) remains a key challenge in the development of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics. A better understanding of the mechanisms of siRNA cellular uptake, intracellular transport and endosomal release could critically contribute to the improvement of delivery methods. Here we monitored the uptake of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) loaded with traceable siRNAs in different cell types in vitro and in mouse liver by quantitative fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy. We found that LNPs enter cells by both constitutive and inducible pathways in a cell type-specific manner using clathrin-mediated endocytosis as well as macropinocytosis. By directly detecting colloidal-gold particles conjugated to siRNAs, we estimated that escape of siRNAs from endosomes into the cytosol occurs at low efficiency (1-2%) and only during a limited window of time when the LNPs reside in a specific compartment sharing early and late endosomal characteristics. Our results provide insights into LNP-mediated siRNA delivery that can guide development of the next generation of delivery systems for RNAi therapeutics.
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          Antisense technologies. Improvement through novel chemical modifications.

           Jens Kurreck (2003)
          Antisense agents are valuable tools to inhibit the expression of a target gene in a sequence-specific manner, and may be used for functional genomics, target validation and therapeutic purposes. Three types of anti-mRNA strategies can be distinguished. Firstly, the use of single stranded antisense-oligonucleotides; secondly, the triggering of RNA cleavage through catalytically active oligonucleotides referred to as ribozymes; and thirdly, RNA interference induced by small interfering RNA molecules. Despite the seemingly simple idea to reduce translation by oligonucleotides complementary to an mRNA, several problems have to be overcome for successful application. Accessible sites of the target RNA for oligonucleotide binding have to be identified, antisense agents have to be protected against nucleolytic attack, and their cellular uptake and correct intracellular localization have to be achieved. Major disadvantages of commonly used phosphorothioate DNA oligonucleotides are their low affinity towards target RNA molecules and their toxic side-effects. Some of these problems have been solved in 'second generation' nucleotides with alkyl modifications at the 2' position of the ribose. In recent years valuable progress has been achieved through the development of novel chemically modified nucleotides with improved properties such as enhanced serum stability, higher target affinity and low toxicity. In addition, RNA-cleaving ribozymes and deoxyribozymes, and the use of 21-mer double-stranded RNA molecules for RNA interference applications in mammalian cells offer highly efficient strategies to suppress the expression of a specific gene.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Nature Biotechnology
            Nat Biotechnol
            Springer Nature
            1087-0156
            1546-1696
            February 27 2017
            February 27 2017
            :
            :
            10.1038/nbt.3779
            © 2017
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