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      Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics of Systems with Long-Range Interactions: Ubiquity of Core-Halo Distributions

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          Abstract

          Systems with long-range (LR) forces, for which the interaction potential decays with the interparticle distance with an exponent smaller than the dimensionality of the embedding space, remain an outstanding challenge to statistical physics. The internal energy of such systems lacks extensivity and additivity. Although the extensivity can be restored by scaling the interaction potential with the number of particles, the non-additivity still remains. Lack of additivity leads to inequivalence of statistical ensembles. Before relaxing to thermodynamic equilibrium, isolated systems with LR forces become trapped in out-of-equilibrium quasi-stationary state (qSS), the lifetime of which diverges with the number of particles. Therefore, in thermodynamic limit LR systems will not relax to equilibrium. The qSSs are attained through the process of collisionless relaxation. Density oscillations lead to particle-wave interactions and excitation of parametric resonances. The resonant particles escape from the main cluster to form a tenuous halo. Simultaneously, this cools down the core of the distribution and dampens out the oscillations. When all the oscillations die out the ergodicity is broken and a qSS is born. In this report, we will review a theory which allows us to quantitatively predict the particle distribution in the qSS. The theory is applied to various LR interacting systems, ranging from plasmas to self-gravitating clusters and kinetic spin models.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Construction of higher order symplectic integrators

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            Statistical Mechanics of Violent Relaxation in Stellar Systems

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2013-10-03
                Article
                10.1016/j.physrep.2013.10.001
                1310.1078

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                103 pages, 53 figures, Physics Reports (in press)
                cond-mat.stat-mech astro-ph.GA physics.plasm-ph

                Plasma physics, Condensed matter, Galaxy astrophysics

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