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      The Macular Carotenoids Lutein and Zeaxanthin Are Related to Increased Bone Density in Young Healthy Adults

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      1 , 2 , *
      Foods
      MDPI
      carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, bone, DXA

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          Abstract

          Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) status can be quantified by measuring their concentrations both in serum and, non-invasively, in retinal tissue. This has resulted in a unique ability to assess their role in a number of tissues ranging from cardiovascular to central nervous system tissue. Recent reports using animal models have suggested yet another role, a developmental increase in bone mass. To test this, we assessed L and Z status in 63 young healthy adults. LZ status was determined by measuring LZ in serum (using HPLC) and retina tissue (measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD, using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry). Bone density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Although serum LZ was generally not related to bone mass, MPOD was significantly related to bone density in the proximal femur and lumbar spine. In general, our results are consistent with carotenoids, specifically LZ, playing a role in optimal bone health.

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          Oxidative stress in bone remodelling and disease.

          Oxidative stress is characterised by an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that disrupts the intracellular reduction-oxidation (redox) balance. Although initially shown to be involved in aging, physiological roles for ROS in regulating cell functions and mediating intracellular signals have emerged. In bone tissues, recent studies have demonstrated that ROS generation is a key modulator of bone cell function and that oxidative status influences the pathophysiology of mineralised tissues. Here, we review the crucial role of oxidative stress in bone pathophysiology, and discuss the possibility that ROS production might be a relevant therapeutic target under certain conditions. Further studies will be needed to investigate whether manipulation of the redox balance in bone cells represents a useful approach in the design of future therapies for bone diseases.
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            Total oxidative/anti-oxidative status and relation to bone mineral density in osteoporosis.

            The aim of this study was to evaluate the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidative status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We also investigate the relation between bone mineral density and oxidative/antioxidative parameters. Thirty-nine patients with osteoporosis and 26 healthy controls were included in the study. Plasma TAS, TOS levels were determined by using a novel automated methods. Plasma TOS and OSI value were significantly higher, and plasma TAS level was lower in patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001 for all). There was a significant negative correlation between OSI and BMD in lumbar and femoral neck region (r = -0.63, P < 0.001; r = 0.40, P = 0.018). The results of this study indicated that increased osteoclastic activity and decreased osteoblastic activity may be associated with an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Therefore, supplementation of antioxidant-enriched diet to the therapy might shed light on the development of novel therapeutic strategies for osteoporosis.
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              Calcium metabolism and oxidative stress in bone fractures: role of antioxidants.

              Calcium ion is an essential structural component of the skeleton. There is growing evidence for the importance of nutrition in the maintenance of bones and joints health. Nutritional imbalance combined with endocrine abnormalities may be involved in osteoporosis. For example, essential fatty acids and their metabolites were reported to have beneficial action in osteoporosis. The mechanism by which fatty acids prevent osteoporosis may involve inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to have a major role in osteoporosis through induction of oxidative stress which had adverse effects on the skeleton. Other risk factors for osteoporosis, such as smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus are also associated with increased oxidative stress and free radicals levels. When bone fracture occurs, a remarkable yield of free radicals is generated by the damaged tissues. However, controlled production of free radicals by normally functioning osteoclasts could accelerate destruction of calcified tissues and assist bone remodeling. Enhanced osteoclastic activity observed in bone disorders may have been responsible for increased production of reactive oxygen species [ROS] in the form of superoxide, which is evident by increased levels of serum malondialdehyde [MDA] levels. One of the most damaging effects of ROS is lipid peroxidation, the end product of which is MDA which also served as a measure of osteoclastic activity. Inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes activities, such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, was found to increase superoxide production by the osteoclasts which represented by increased levels of MDA. Therefore, oxidative stress is an important mediator of bone loss since deficiency of antioxidant vitamins has been found to be more common in the elderly osteoporotic patients. It is concluded from this review that increased free radical production overwhelms the natural antioxidants defense mechanisms, subjecting individuals to hyperoxidant stress and thus leading to osteoporosis. In addition, administration of antioxidants might protect bones from osteoporosis and also might help in the acceleration of healing of fractured bones.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Foods
                Foods
                foods
                Foods
                MDPI
                2304-8158
                07 September 2017
                September 2017
                : 6
                : 9
                : 78
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Psychology Department, State University of New York at Oswego, Oswego, NY 13126, USA; emily.bovier@ 123456oswego.edu
                [2 ]Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: bhammond@ 123456uga.edu ; Tel.: +1-706-542-4812
                Article
                foods-06-00078
                10.3390/foods6090078
                5615290
                28880221
                36f40ecf-3f1b-4b31-bf6d-7e474358fe6d
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 27 July 2017
                : 29 August 2017
                Categories
                Article

                carotenoids,lutein,zeaxanthin,bone,dxa
                carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, bone, dxa

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